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Mutahhirat » 4. Transformation (istiḥālah) → ← Mutahhirat » 2. Earth

Mutahhirat » 3. The sun

Ruling 185. The sun purifies earth, buildings, and walls on five conditions:

1.
the impure object is sufficiently wet, such that if another thing would come into contact with it, the latter would become wet. Therefore, if the object is dry, it must be wetted by some means so that the sun can then dry it;
2. no intrinsic impurity remains on the impure object;
3. nothing prevents the sun from shining on the impure object. Therefore, if the sun shines on the impure object from behind a curtain or cloud etc. and makes it dry, the object does not become pure. However, there is no problem if the cloud is so thin that it does not prevent the sun from shining on the object;
4. the sun must dry the impure object by itself. Therefore, if, for example, an impure object is dried by both the wind and the sun, it does not become pure. However, there is no problem if the drying of the object can be commonly attributed to the sun shining on it;
5. the sun must dry the building that is impure in one go. Therefore, if one time the sun shines on impure earth or a building and it dries the surface of it and another time it dries the underside of it, then only its surface becomes pure and its underside remains impure.

Ruling 186. The sun can purify an impure ḥaṣīr mat; but if it is woven with thread, the sun does not purify the threads. To say that trees, grass, doors, and windows become pure by means of the sun is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, they do not become pure in this way].

Ruling 187. If the sun shines on impure earth and afterwards a person doubts whether or not the earth was wet when the sun shone on it, or whether or not the wetness of the earth has dried by means of the sun, then that earth is impure. The same applies if one doubts whether or not the intrinsic impurity has been removed. And if a person doubts whether or not something prevented the sun from shining on the impure object, then to consider it as having become pure is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, it must not be considered as having become pure].

Ruling 188. If the sun shines on one side of an impure wall and as a result the other side of the wall – on which the sun did not shine – also becomes dry, it is not farfetched (baʿīd)(1) to consider both sides as having become pure [i.e. both sides are deemed to be pure]. However, if one day the sun dries the exterior of a wall or some earth and another day its interior, then only its exterior becomes pure.

(1) For practical purposes, a legal opinion that is termed ‘not farfetched’ equates to a fatwa.
Mutahhirat » 4. Transformation (istiḥālah) → ← Mutahhirat » 2. Earth
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