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Ruling 371. In immersive and sequential ghusl, it is not necessary for the entire body to be pure before performing ghusl; rather, if the body becomes pure by immersing the body in water or by pouring water with the intention of ghusl, then ghusl will have taken place on condition that the water used to perform ghusl remains pure; for example, one performs ghusl with kurr water.[1]

Ruling 372. If someone who has become junub by unlawful means performs ghusl with hot water, his ghusl is valid even if he sweats [during the ghusl].

Ruling 373. If in ghusl any part of the outer area of the body is left unwashed, the ghusl is invalid. However, washing inside the ears, nose, and whatever is considered an inner part of the body is not obligatory.

Ruling 374. If a person doubts whether a part of the body is considered an outer or inner part, he must wash it.

Ruling 375. If earing holes and suchlike have become so stretched that their inner areas are considered outer parts of the body, then those areas must be washed; otherwise, it is not necessary to wash them.

Ruling 376. Anything that is an obstacle for water to reach the body must be removed; if one performs ghusl before becoming confident that the obstacle has been removed, the ghusl is invalid.

Ruling 377. While performing ghusl, if one rationally deems it probable that there is something on his body that may be an obstacle for water to reach the body, he must examine it and become confident that it is not an obstacle.

Ruling 378. In ghusl, short hair that is considered part of the body must be washed. It is not obligatory to wash long hair. In fact, if one makes water reach the skin in a way that the hair does not become wet, the ghusl is valid. However, if it is not possible for water to reach the skin without the hair becoming wet, then one must wash the hair in a way that water reaches the body.

Ruling 379. All the conditions mentioned for wuḍūʾ to be valid – such as the water being pure and not being usurped – are also conditions for ghusl to be valid. However, in ghusl, it is not necessary for the body to be washed from top to bottom. Furthermore, in sequential ghusl, it is not necessary for the body to be washed immediately after washing the head and neck; therefore, there is no problem if after one has washed his head and neck he waits and after some time he washes his body. In fact, it is not necessary for the entire head and neck to be washed in one go; therefore, it is permitted, for example, for one to wash his head and after a while to wash his neck. Furthermore, if someone who cannot control the discharge of urine or faeces does not discharge urine or faeces for the length of time it takes him to perform ghusl and prayers, he must immediately perform ghusl then immediately perform prayers.

Ruling 380. If someone wants to pay on credit for using a public bath without knowing whether or not the owner consents [to this form of payment, but still performs ghusl there], then even if afterwards the owner accepts, his ghusl is void.

Ruling 381. If the owner of a public bath consents for the money owed to him for using the public bath to be paid on credit, but the person who performs ghusl does not intend to pay the debt he owes him, or he intends to pay him from unlawful money, his ghusl is void.

Ruling 382. If someone pays the owner of a public bath from money on which the one-fifth tax (khums) has not been paid, then although he has committed an unlawful act, the apparent ruling is that his ghusl is valid but he remains indebted to those entitled (mustaḥiqqūn) to receive khums.

Ruling 383.* Someone who doubts whether or not he has performed ghusl must perform it. However, if after performing ghusl, when the ghusl would commonly be considered finished, one doubts whether or not part of his head and neck or body has been washed, then in case he habitually performs the acts of ghusl in close succession and knows that he has washed most parts of his body, he must not heed his doubt.

Ruling 384. If while one is performing ghusl he has a minor occurrence (al‑ḥadath al‑aṣghar)[2] – for example, he urinates – it is not necessary for him to stop performing the ghusl and start another ghusl [all over again]; rather, he can complete his ghusl but based on obligatory precaution, he will require wuḍūʾ [for performing acts that require wuḍūʾ]. However, if [one has a minor occurrence while performing a sequential ghusl and] he changes from performing a sequential ghusl to an immersive one, or [if one has a minor occurrence while performing an immersive ghusl and he changes from performing] an immersive ghusl to a sequential one, then it is not necessary for him also to perform wuḍūʾ.

Ruling 385. If due to shortage of time one’s duty was to perform tayammum but thinking that he had enough time to perform both ghusl and the prayer, he performed ghusl instead and his prayers became qaḍāʾ [i.e. they were not performed in their prescribed time], then in case he had performed ghusl with the intention of attaining proximity to Allah, his ghusl is valid even if he had performed the ghusl to perform prayers.

Ruling 386. If after performing prayers a person who had become junub doubts whether he had performed ghusl or not, the prayers he performed are valid; however, for future prayers he must perform ghusl. If after prayers he has a minor occurrence, it is necessary for him also to perform wuḍūʾ; and if there is time, he must, based on obligatory precaution, repeat the prayers he had performed.

Ruling 387. Someone who must perform a number of obligatory ghusls can perform one ghusl with the intention of all of them. Similarly, if he makes the intention of one of the ghusls, it is sufficient for the others [and he does not have to make separate intentions].

Ruling 388. If a verse of the Qur’an or a name of Allah the Exalted is written on part of one’s body, in the event that he wants to perform ghusl in its sequential form, he must make water reach the area in a way that his hand does not touch the writing. The same applies if he wants to perform wuḍūʾ and a verse of the Qur’an is written on one of the parts of his body on which wuḍūʾ is performed; and [in case he wants to perform wuḍūʾ] and a name of Allah is written, the same applies, albeit based on obligatory precaution.

Ruling 389. Someone who has performed the ghusl for janābah must not perform wuḍūʾ for prayers. He can perform prayers without performing wuḍūʾ after other obligatory ghusls as well, except the ghusl for medium istiḥāḍah. Furthermore, [he can perform prayers without performing wuḍūʾ] with recommended ghusls – which will be discussed in Ruling 633 – although the recommended precaution is that [if he has performed a recommended ghusl], he should also perform wuḍūʾ.

[1] As mentioned in Ruling 15, as long as kurr water does not acquire the smell, colour, or taste of an impurity with which it has come into contact, it does not become impure.

[2] Ḥadath (literally, ‘occurrence’) is a term used in Islamic law to refer to something that invalidates wuḍūʾ; it can be of two types: al‑ḥadath al‑aṣghar (minor occurrence) and al‑ḥadath al‑akbar (major occurrence). A minor occurrence is something that requires one to perform wuḍūʾ in order to engage in an act of worship that requires wuḍūʾ, such as prayers. These things are: urinating, defecating, passing wind, sleeping, things that cause one to lose his mind (such as insanity, intoxication, and unconsciousness), and slight irregular blood discharge (al‑istiḥāḍah al‑qalīlah). As for a major occurrence, this is something that requires one to perform ghusl in order to perform an act of worship that requires wuḍūʾ; under this category come the following: ritual impurity (janābah), menstruation (ḥayḍ), lochia (nifās), medium and excessive irregular blood discharge (al‑istiḥāḍah al‑mutawassiṭah and al‑kathīrah), and touching a corpse (mass al‑mayyit).
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