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Obligatory acts relating to Namaz » Testifying (tashahhud)

Ruling 1086. In the second rakʿah of all obligatory and recommended prayers, and in the third rakʿah of maghrib prayers, and in the fourth rakʿah of ẓuhr, ʿaṣr and ʿishāʾ prayers, one must sit [in a kneeling type of position] after the second sajdah; and while his body is still, he must say tashahhud, i.e.:

أَشْهَدُ أَن لَّا إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِیكَ لَهُ، وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ، اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

ashhadu al lā ilāha illal lāhu waḥdahu lā sharīka lah, wa ashhadu anna muḥammadan ʿabduhu wa rasūluh, allāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadiw wa āli muḥammad

And it is sufficient for one to say:

أَشْهَدُ أَن لَّا إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ، وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ
عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ

ashhadu al lā ilāha illal lāh, wa ashhadu anna muḥammadan ṣallal lāhu ʿalayhi wa ālihi ʿabduhu wa rasūluh

Tashahhud is also necessary in the witr prayer.(1)

Ruling 1087. The words of tashahhud must be said in correct Arabic and consecutively in a normal manner.

Ruling 1088. If a person forgets tashahhud, stands up, and remembers before going into rukūʿ that he has not performed it, he must sit down, say tashahhud, stand up again, recite everything that must be recited in that rakʿah, and complete the prayer. And based on recommended precaution, after completing the prayer he should perform sajdatā al-sahw for standing without due reason. However, if he remembers [that he has not said tashahhud] during or after performing rukūʿ, then he must complete the prayer. And based on recommended precaution, after the salām of the prayer he should perform qaḍāʾ of the tashahhud, and he must perform sajdatā al-sahw for the forgotten tashahhud.

Ruling 1089. It is recommended that while saying tashahhud, one should sit with his weight placed on his left thigh, and place the front of his right foot on the sole of his left; and before tashahhud, he should say:

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ

alḥamdu lillāh

…or he should say:

بِسْمِ اللهِ وَ بِاللهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَ خَیْـرُ الْأَسْمَاءِ لِلّٰهِ

bismil lāhi wa billāhi wal ḥamdu lillāhi wa khayrul asmāʾi lillāh

In the name of Allah and by Allah. All praise is for Allah and the best names belong to Allah.

It is also recommended that one places his hands on his thighs, closes his fingers together, looks at his lap, and says after reciting ṣalawāt in tashahhud:

وَ تَـقَبَّلْ شَفَاعَتَهُ وَ ارْفَعْ دَرَجَتَهُ

wa taqabbal shafāʿatahu war faʿ darajatah

Ruling 1090. It is recommended that women keep their thighs closed together when saying tashahhud.

(1) This is the one rakʿah prayer that is performed as part of the night prayer. See Ruling 752.
Obligatory acts relating to Namaz » Salutation (salām) → ← Obligatory acts relating to Namaz » Obligatory (wājib) prostrations of the Qur’an
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