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Things which invalidate prayers » The Two prostrations for inadvertence (sajdatā al-sahw) → ← Things which invalidate prayers » Doubts that are valid (ṣaḥīḥ)

Things which invalidate prayers » Method of performing the precautionary prayer (ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ)

Ruling 1201. A person on whom ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ is obligatory must make the intention of performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ immediately after the salām of the prayer; he must then say takbīr, recite Sūrat al-Ḥamd, and perform rukūʿ and two sajdahs. If one rakʿah of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ is obligatory on him, then after performing the two sajdahs he must say tashahhud and the salām. If two rakʿahs of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ are obligatory on him, then after performing the two sajdahs he must perform another rakʿah in the same way as the first, and after tashahhud he must say the salām.

Ruling 1202. Ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ does not have a second surah or qunūt, and one must not speak out the intention for it. Furthermore, based on obligatory precaution, one must recite Sūrat al-Ḥamd in a whisper. And the recommended precaution is that he should also say its bismillāh in a whisper.

Ruling 1203. If before performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one realises that the prayer he performed was correct, it is not necessary for him to perform ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ. And if he realises this while performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ, it is not necessary for him to complete it.

Ruling 1204. If before performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one realises that the number of rakʿahs he performed were less than the required number, in the event that he has not done anything that invalidates prayers, he must perform whatever he has not performed; then, based on obligatory precaution, he must perform sajdatā al-sahw for saying an additional salām. However, if he has done something that invalidates prayers – for example, he turned his back to qibla – then he must perform the prayer again.

Ruling 1205. If after performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one realises that the deficiency in the number of rakʿahs in his prayer was the same as the number of rakʿahs in his ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ – for example, for the doubt between three and four rakʿahs, he performs one rakʿah of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ and he later realises that he had performed three rakʿahs – in such a case, his prayer is valid.

Ruling 1206. If after performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one realises that the deficiency in the number of rakʿahs in his prayer was less than the number of rakʿahs in his ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ – for example, for the doubt between two and four rakʿahs, he performs two rakʿahs of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ and he later realises that he had performed three rakʿahs – in such a case, he must perform the [original] prayer again.

Ruling 1207. If after performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one realises that the deficiency in the number of rakʿahs in his prayer was more than the number of rakʿahs in his ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ – for example, for the doubt between three and four rakʿahs, he performs one rakʿah of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ and he later realises that he had performed two rakʿahs – then, in the event that after performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ he did something that invalidates prayers, such as turning his back to qibla, he must perform the prayer again. However, if he did not do anything that invalidates prayers, the obligatory precaution is that in this case also he must perform the prayer again, and he must not suffice with joining one rakʿah to the prayer.

Ruling 1208. If a person doubts whether he has performed two, three, or four rakʿahs, and after performing two rakʿahs of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ in a standing position he remembers that he had actually performed two rakʿahs, it is not necessary for him to perform two rakʿahs of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ from a sitting position.

Ruling 1209. If a person doubts whether he has performed three or four rakʿahs, and while performing one rakʿah of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ in a standing position he remembers that he had performed three rakʿahs, he must abandon his ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ; and in the event that he remembers this before going into rukūʿ, he must perform one rakʿah in a way that it connects with his prayer, and his prayer is valid. And for performing an additional salām, based on obligatory precaution, he must perform sajdatā al-sahw. However, if he remembers [that he had performed three rakʿahs] after going into rukūʿ, he must perform the prayer again; and based on obligatory precaution, he cannot suffice with joining the remaining rakʿah to his prayer.

Ruling 1210. If a person doubts whether he has performed two, three, or four rakʿahs, and while performing two rakʿahs of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ in a standing position he remembers that he has performed three rakʿahs, then what was said in the previous ruling applies here as well.

Ruling 1211. If while performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one realises that the deficiency in the number of rakʿahs in his prayer was more or less than the number of rakʿahs in his ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ, then what was mentioned in Ruling 1209 applies here as well.

Ruling 1212. If a person doubts whether or not he has performed a ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ that was obligatory on him, in the event that the time for prayer has expired, he must dismiss his doubt. However, if there is time, then in case a lot of time has not elapsed between the doubt and the [original] prayer, and he has not started to do something else, and he has not done something that invalidates prayers – such as turning his back to qibla – in such a case, he must perform ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ. However, if he has done something that invalidates prayers, or he has started to do something else, or a lot of time has elapsed between the doubt and the [original] prayer, then based on obligatory precaution he must perform the [original] prayer again.

Ruling 1213. If in ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ a person performs two rakʿahs instead of one, his ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ becomes invalid and he must perform his original prayer again. The same applies, based on obligatory precaution, if one adds a rukn to ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ.

Ruling 1214. If while performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one has a doubt about one of the acts, in the event that its time of performance has not passed, he must perform it; and if its time of performance has passed, he must dismiss his doubt. For example, if he doubts whether or not he has recited Sūrat al-Ḥamd, in the event that he has not yet gone into rukūʿ he must recite it, but if he has gone into rukūʿ he must dismiss his doubt.

Ruling 1215. If a person doubts about the number of rakʿahs he has performed in ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ, in the event that the greater of the two numbers he is doubtful about would invalidate the prayer, he must assume the lesser number is correct. However, if the greater of the two numbers would not invalidate the prayer, he must assume the greater number is correct. For example, if while performing two rakʿahs of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ he doubts whether he has performed two or three rakʿahs, as the greater of the two numbers would invalidate the prayer, he must assume that he has performed two rakʿahs; but if he doubts whether he has performed one or two rakʿahs, then as the greater number would not invalidate the prayer, he must assume that he has performed two rakʿahs.

Ruling 1216. If in ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ something that is not a rukn is inadvertently omitted or added, then performing sajdatā al-sahw is not required.

Ruling 1217. If after the salām of ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one doubts whether or not he has performed a particular component of it or whether he has fulfilled all its conditions, he must dismiss his doubt.

Ruling 1218. If in ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ one forgets tashahhud or one sajdah and it is not possible to perform them at their correct time, the obligatory precaution is that after the salām of the prayer he must make up the sajdah; however, it is not necessary for him to make up the tashahhud.

Ruling 1219. If ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ and sajdatā al-sahw become obligatory on a person, he must first perform ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ. The same applies, based on obligatory precaution, if ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ and making up a sajdah become obligatory on a person.

Ruling 1220. The rule concerning suppositions (ẓann) in the number of rakʿahs is the same as the rule concerning certainty. For example, if someone does not know whether he has performed one or two rakʿahs but has a supposition that he has performed two rakʿahs, he must assume he has performed two rakʿahs. And if in a four rakʿah prayer he has a supposition that he has performed four rakʿahs, then performing ṣalāt al-iḥtiyāṭ is not necessary. As for acts of prayers, the rule concerning suppositions is the same as that for doubts. Therefore, if one has a supposition that he has performed rukūʿ, then in case he has not gone into sajdah, he must perform rukūʿ; and if he has a supposition that he has not recited Sūrat al-Ḥamd, in the event that he has started to recite the other surah, he must dismiss his supposition and his prayer is valid.

Ruling 1221. There is no difference in the rules for doubt, inadvertence, and supposition in the daily obligatory prayers and in the other obligatory prayers. For example, if in ṣalāt al-āyāt one doubts whether he has performed one rakʿah or two, then as his doubt is in a two rakʿah prayer, his prayer becomes invalid.(1) And if he has a supposition that he has performed two rakʿahs or that he has performed one rakʿah, he must complete his prayer in accordance with his supposition.

(1) See Ruling 1151.
Things which invalidate prayers » The Two prostrations for inadvertence (sajdatā al-sahw) → ← Things which invalidate prayers » Doubts that are valid (ṣaḥīḥ)
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