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Qadha prayers » Hiring someone to perform prayers(1) → ← Congregational prayers » Method of performing ṣalāt al-āyāt

Congregational prayers » The Eid al-Fiṭr(1) & Eid al-Aḍḥā prayers(2)

Ruling 1495. The Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā prayer is obligatory during the presence of the Imam (ʿA) and must be performed in congregation. In our time, when the Imam (ʿA) is in occultation, the prayer is recommended and it can be performed in congregation or on one’s own.

Ruling 1496. The time for the Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā prayer is from sunrise to the time of ẓuhr prayers on the day of Eid.

Ruling 1497. It is recommended that one performs the Eid al-Aḍḥā prayer after sunrise. On the day of Eid al-Fiṭr, it is recommended that after sunrise one eats something, pays the fiṭrah alms tax (zakāt al-fiṭrah),(3) and then performs Eid prayers.

Ruling 1498. The Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā prayer consists of two rakʿahs, and in each rakʿah after reciting Sūrat al-Ḥamd and the other surah, one says three takbīrs, although it is better that he says five takbīrs in the first rakʿah. Between every two takbīrs he should perform one qunūt [and so there will be a total of four qunūts in the first rakʿah]; and after the fifth takbīr he should say another takbīr, go into rukūʿ, perform two sajdahs, and then stand up. In the second rakʿah, he should say four takbīrs, and between every two takbīrs he should perform one qunūt [and so there will be a total of three qunūts in the second rakʿah]; and after the fourth takbīr he should say another takbīr, go into rukūʿ, perform two sajdahs, and then say tashahhud and the salām of the prayer.

Ruling 1499. In the qunūt of the Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā prayer, it is sufficient for one to recite any duʿāʾ or say any dhikr. However, it is better that one recites this duʿāʾ:

اَللّٰهُمَّ أَهْلَ الْکِبْرِیَاءِ وَ الْعَظَمَةِ، وَ أَهْلَ اْلجُودِ وَ الْجَبَروتِ، وَ أَهْلَ الْعَفْوِ وَ الرَّحْمَةِ، وَ أَهْلَ التَّـقْوَىٰ وَ الْمَغْفِرَةِ، أَسْأَلُكَ بِحَقِّ هٰذَا الْیَـوْمِ، اَلَّذِي جَعَلْتَهُ لِلْمُسْلِمِینَ عِیْدًا، وَ لِمُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّی اللهُ عَلَیْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ ذُخْــرًا وَّ شَرَفاً وَّ کَرَامَةً وَّ مَزِیدًا، أَنْ تُصَلِّیَ عَلىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَ أَنْ تُدْخِلَنِي فِي کُل خـَـیْرٍ أَدْخـَـلْتَ فِیْهِ مُحَـــمَّدًا وَّ آلَ مُحَــمَّدٍ، وَ أَنْ تُخْرِجَنِي مِنْ کُل سُـوءٍ أَخْرَجْــتَ مِنْهُ مُحَمَّدًا وَّ آلَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَواتُكَ عَلَیْهِ وَ عَلَیْهِمْ، اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ خَیْـرَ مَا سَأَلَكَ بِهِ عِبَادُكَ الصَّالِحُونَ، وَ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِمَّا اسْتَعَاذَ مِنْهُ
عِبَادُكَ الْمُخْلَصُونَ

allāhumma ahlal kibriyāʾi wal aẓamah, wa ahlal jūdi wal jabarūt, wa ahlal ʿafwi war raḥmah, wa ahlat taqwā wal maghfirah, asʾaluka biḥaqqi hādhal yawm, alladhī jaʿaltahu lilmuslimīna ʿīdā, wa limuḥammadin ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa sallama dhukhraw wa sharafaw wa karāmataw wa mazīdā, an tuṣalliya ʿalā muḥammadiw wa āli muḥammad, wa an tudkhilanī fī kulli khayrin adkhalta fīhi muḥammadan wa āla muḥammad, wa an tukhrijanī min kulli sūʾin akhrajta minhu muḥammadaw wa āla muḥammad, ṣalawātuka ʿalayhi wa ʿalayhim, allāhumma innī asʾaluka khayra mā saʾalaka bihi ʿibādukaṣ ṣāliḥūn, wa aʿūdhu bika mimmas taʿādha minhu ʿibādukal mukhlaṣūn

O Allah! Worthy of supremacy and greatness, and worthy of magnanimity and omnipotence, and worthy to pardon and to show mercy, and worthy of being wary of and to forgive: I beseech You by the right of this day – which You have appointed to be an Eid for the Muslims and to be [a source for] accumulating [Your blessings], and [a source of] honour, nobility, and increase [in Your blessings] for Muḥammad, may Allah shower His blessings upon and extend His salutations to him and his progeny – that You bless Muḥammad and the progeny of Muḥammad, and that You place me in every goodness in which You placed Muḥammad and the progeny of Muḥammad, and that You remove me from every evil from which You removed Muḥammad and the progeny of Muḥammad, may Your blessings be upon him and upon them. O Allah! I indeed beseech You for the good for which Your righteous servants have beseeched You, and I seek protection in You from all that for which Your purified servants have sought Your protection.

Ruling 1500. During the period of occultation of the Imam (ʿA), if the Eid al-Fiṭr and Eid al-Aḍḥā prayer is performed in congregation, the obligatory precaution is that two sermons must be delivered after the prayer. And it is better that in the sermon of Eid al-Fiṭr the laws of zakat of fiṭr be mentioned, and in the sermon of Eid al-Aḍḥā the laws of sacrificing animals be mentioned.

Ruling 1501. The Eid prayer does not have a specified surah [to be recited], but it is better that in the first rakʿah Sūrat al-Shams (the ninety-first chapter) be recited, and in the second rakʿah Sūrat al-Ghāshiyah (the eighty-eighth chapter) be recited; or, in the first rakʿah Sūrat al-Aʿlā (the eighty-seventh chapter) be recited, and in the second rakʿah Sūrat al-Shams be recited.

Ruling 1502. It is recommended that Eid prayers be performed in the desert [or in open fields etc.]. However, in Mecca it is recommended that they be performed in Masjid al-Ḥarām.

Ruling 1503. It is recommended to walk barefooted and in a dignified manner to Eid prayers, to perform ghusl before the prayer, and to place a white turban (ʿammāmah) on one’s head.

Ruling 1504. It is recommended in Eid prayers to perform sajdah on earth, to raise one’s hands when saying the takbīrs, and to recite Sūrat al-Ḥamd and the other surah aloud, whether one is the imam of the congregation or one is performing the prayer on his own.

Ruling 1505. After maghrib and ʿishāʾ prayers on the evening of Eid al-Fiṭr, and after ṣubḥ prayers, and after the Eid al-Fiṭr prayer, it is recommended that one says these takbīrs:

اَللهُ أَکْبَـرُ، اَللهُ أَکْبَـرُ، لَا إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَ اللهُ أَکْبَـرُ، اَللهُ أَکْبَـرُ وَ لِلّٰهِ الْحَمْدُ، اَللهُ أَکْبَـرُ عَلىٰ مَا هَدَانَا

allāhu akbar, allāhu akbar, lā ilāha illal lāhu wal lāhu akbar, allāhu akbar wa lillāhil ḥamd, allāhu akbar ʿalā mā hadānā

Allah is greater;(4) Allah is greater; there is no god but Allah and Allah is greater; Allah is greater and all praise is for Allah; Allah is greater for having guided us.

Ruling 1506. It is recommended that on Eid al-Aḍḥā after ten [consecutive] prayers – the first of which being the ẓuhr prayer on the day of Eid and the last one being the ṣubḥ prayer on the twelfth day [of Dhū al-Ḥijjah] – a person says the takbīrs that were mentioned in the previous ruling, and that after each one he says:

اَللهُ أَکْبَـرُ عَلىٰ مَا رَزَقَـنَا مِنۢ بَهِیمَةِ الْأَنْـعَامِ، وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ عَلىٰ مَا أَبْلَانَا

allāhu akbaru ʿalā mā razaqanā mim bahīmatil anʿām, wal ḥamdu lillāhi ʿalā mā ablānā

Allah is greater for having sustained us with [the produce of] cattle livestock, and all praise is for Allah for having tested us.

However, if one is in Mina on Eid al-Aḍḥā, it is recommended that one says these takbīrs after fifteen [consecutive] prayers, the first of which being the ẓuhr prayer on the day of Eid and the last one being the ṣubḥ prayer on the thirteenth day of Dhū al-Ḥijjah.

Ruling 1507. The recommended precaution is that women should avoid going to Eid prayers; however, this precaution does not apply to elderly women.

Ruling 1508. In Eid prayers, just like in other prayers, the follower must say everything except the recitation of Sūrat al-Ḥamd and the other surah.

Ruling 1509. If a follower joins [the Eid prayer] when the imam has already said some of the takbīrs, then after the imam goes into rukūʿ, he must say all the takbīrs and perform all the qunūts that he missed and then perform rukūʿ; and it is sufficient that in every qunūt he says ‘subḥānal lāhi wal ḥamdu lillāh’. If there is not enough time, he must only say the takbīrs; and if there is not enough time to perform the takbīrs, it is sufficient that he follows the imam and goes into rukūʿ.

Ruling 1510. If a person joins the Eid prayer when the imam is in rukūʿ, he can make the intention [of performing the prayer] and say the first takbīr of the prayer and then go into rukūʿ.

Ruling 1511. If a person forgets a sajdah in the Eid prayer, it is necessary that he performs it after the prayer. Similarly, if something happens [in the Eid prayer] that would necessitate sajdatā al-sahw to be performed were it to happen in a daily prayer, then it is necessary to perform sajdatā al-sahw for it.

(1) The 1st of Shawwāl.
(2) The 10th of Dhū al-Ḥijjah.
(3) The laws relating to this tax are stated in Ruling 2003 and onwards.
(4) As mentioned in the section on adhān, the complete meaning of this statement is ‘Allah is greater than what He is described as’.
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