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Fasting » Laws of fasting for a traveller

Ruling 1683. A traveller must not fast if his obligation on a journey is to perform the four unit (rakʿah) prayers as two rakʿahs [i.e. in qaṣr form]. A traveller who performs his prayer in its complete (tamām) form – such as someone whose work is travelling, or someone whose journey is a sinful one – must fast on his journey.

Ruling 1684. Travelling during the month of Ramadan is not for­bidden. However, travelling in order to escape fasting is disapproved. Similarly, travelling in general in the month of Ramadan is disapproved except for ʿumrah(1) or because of necessity.

Ruling 1685. If an assigned [i.e. time-specific] fast – other than the fast of the month of Ramadan – is obligatory on a person, then, in the event that it has become obligatory because he has been hired by someone to fast and suchlike, or it is the third fast of the days of spiritual retreat (iʿtikāf),(2) he cannot travel on that day; and if he is on a journey and it is possible, he must make an intention to stay in a place for ten days and fast on that day. However, if the fast of that day has become obligatory on account of a vow, the apparent (ẓāhir)(3) ruling is that travelling is permitted on that day and it is not obligatory to make an intention to stay, although it is better not to travel if one is not obliged to, and if he is on a journey it is better to make an intention to stay. However, if it has become obligatory on account of an oath (qasam) or a covenant (ʿahd), then based on obligatory precaution one must not travel, and if he was on a journey he must make an intention to stay.

Ruling 1686. If a person makes a vow to keep a recommended fast but does not assign a day for it, he cannot keep that fast on a journey. However, in the event that one makes a vow that he will fast on a particular day on a journey, he must keep that fast on a journey. Furthermore, if one makes a vow to fast on a particular day whether he is travelling or not, he must fast on that day even if he is travelling.

Ruling 1687. A traveller can keep recommended fasts in Medina for three days for the fulfilment of wishes [i.e. for particular needs (ḥājāt) of his to be granted]; and the obligatory precaution is for those three days to be Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday.

Ruling 1688. If someone who does not know that a traveller’s fast is invalid fasts on a journey and finds out the ruling during the day, his fast becomes invalid; and if he does not find out until maghrib, his fast is valid.

Ruling 1689. If a person forgets that he is a traveller or that a traveller’s fast is invalid and fasts on a journey, then based on obligatory precaution his fast is invalid.

Ruling 1690. If a fasting person travels after ẓuhr, he must, based on obligatory precaution, complete his fast; and in such a case, it is not necessary for him to make up that fast. If he travels before ẓuhr, then based on obligatory precaution he cannot fast on that day, particularly if he had made the intention to travel the night before. In any case, he must not do anything that invalidates a fast before reaching the permitted limit (ḥadd al-tarakhkhuṣ),(4) otherwise kaffārah becomes obligatory on him.

Ruling 1691. If a traveller in the month of Ramadan – whether he travelled before sunrise or he was fasting and then travelled – reaches his home town (waṭan)(5) or a place where he intends to stay for ten days before ẓuhr, in the event that he did not do anything that invalidates a fast before reaching that place, he must, based on obligatory precaution, fast on that day and it is not obligatory on him to make it up. And if he did something that invalidates a fast before reaching that place, the fast of that day is not obligatory on him and he must make it up.

Ruling 1692. If a traveller reaches his home town or a place where he intends to stay for ten days after ẓuhr, then based on obligatory precaution his fast is invalid and he must make it up.

Ruling 1693. It is disapproved for a traveller, and indeed anyone who has a legitimate excuse for not fasting, to have sexual intercourse or to eat and drink to his full during the day in the month of Ramadan.

(1) ʿUmrah refers to the pilgrimage to Mecca that has fewer rituals than the hajj pilgrimage. It is sometimes referred to as the ‘minor pilgrimage’.
(2) Iʿtikāf refers to the act of staying in a mosque under particular conditions with the intention of worshipping Allah. The laws of iʿtikāf are stated in the next chapter.
(3) For practical purposes in jurisprudential rulings, expressing an ‘apparent’ ruling equates to giving a fatwa.
(4) The permitted limit is explained in Ruling 1304.
(5) Rulings 1314–1318 explain what is legally considered to be one’s home town.
Fasting » Those on whom fasting is not obligatory (wājib) → ← Fasting » Laws of a lapsed (qaḍāʾ) fast
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