Works : Islamic Laws
The following are the conditions for a correct Wudhu:
- The first condition is that the water should be Pak, and clean, not sullied with dirt, even if that dirt is Pak.
- The second condition is that the water should be pure, and not mixed.
271. Wudhu performed with najis or mixed water is void,even if one may not be aware of its being najis, or mixed, or may have forgotten about it. And if one has offered prayers with that Wudhu, one should repeat that prayers with a valid Wudhu.
272. If a person does not have any water to perform Wudhu, except that which is murky with clay, he should perform tayammum if only a short time is left for prayers; and if he has enough time at his disposal, he should wait till the water becomes lim pid, and then perform Wudhu with it.
- The third condition is that the water should be Mubah (permissible for use).
273. To perform Wudhu with usurped water, or with water about which one does not know whether the owner would allow its use, is haraam, and Wudhu will be void. Furthermore, if the water of Wudhu used for washing face and hands, falls on usurped land, or if the space in which he performs Wudhu is usurped, his obligation will be to do tayammum, if he has no other place to go for Wudhu.
And if another lawful place is available, he should go there for Wudhu. And if he does Wudhu at the first place, his Wu dhu will be valid, but he will have committed a sin.
274. If a person does not know whether the pool or tank of water of a madressah has been dedicated to the general public, or exclusively to the students of madressah, there is no harm in doing Wudhu there, provided that people usually do so at that pl ace without prohibition.
275. If a person who does not wish to offer prayers in a particular mosque, is not aware whether its pool has been dedicated to the general public, or specifically to those who offer prayers in that mosque, he cannot perform Wudhu with the water of th e pool of that mosque. However, if people who do not pray in that mosque, usually perform Wudhu there, without any prohibition, he can perform Wudhu from that pool.
276. Performing Wudhu from the pools of the inns and hotels etc. by persons who are not residing there, is valid if the other persons who are not staying there usually perform Wudhu with that water, without being prohibited.
277. There is no harm if a person performs Wudhu in the water flowing in big canals, even if he does not know whether the owner of that canal would allow. But, if the owner of the canal prohibits performing Wudhu with that water, or if he is a minor, or an insane person, then as a recommended precaution, one should refrain from doing Wudhu in it.
278. If a person forgets that the water has been usurped, and performs Wudhu with it, his Wudhu is in order. But, if a person has usurped the water himself, and then forgets about it, his Wudhu with that water will be void.
- The fourth condition is that the container of the water, used by the person concerned for Wudhu, should be Mubah (permissible for use by him).
- The fifth condition is that, as an obligatory precaution, the container of the water used for Wudhu should not be made of gold or silver. The details of these two rules will follow later.
279. If the water for Wudhu is in a usurped container or is in the vessels of gold and silver, and there is no other water available, he should transfer that water lawfully into another container, and then do Wudhu. If he cannot possibly do that, he s hould perform tayammum.
However, if he has other water, he should use that for Wudhu. And in either case, if he acts against the rule and performs Wudhu with the water which is either in a usurped container, or is made of gold or silver, his wudhu will be in order.
280. A pool of water which has a usurped stone or brick in it, can be used for Wudhu, if drawing water from it would not in any way amount to using that brick or stone. If it amounts to that, then drawing water will be haraam, but Wudhu will be valid.
281. If a pool or a canal is dug in the courtyards of the Shrines of Imams, or their descendents, which was previously a grave-yard, there is no harm in performing Wudhu with water of that pool or canal, if he did not know that land was previously dedica ted as a graveyard.
- The sixth condition is that parts of the body on which Wudhu is performed, should be Pak, at the time of washing and wiping.
282. If the place which has been already washed or wiped in Wudhu becomes najis, before the completion of the Wudhu, it will be deemed valid.
283. If any other part of the body other than the parts of Wudhu is najis, the Wudhu will be in order. However, if the outlet of urine or excretion have not been made Pak, the recommended precaution is that one should make them Pak first, and then perfor m Wudhu.
284. If any one part of Wudhu was najis, and after performing Wudhu one doubts whether he washed it before Wudhu or not, his Wudhu will be valid. But he should wash the part which was najis.
285. If a person has a cut or wound on his face, or hands, and the blood from it does not stop, and if water is not harmful for him, he should, after washing the healthy parts of that limb in proper sequence, put the place of wound or cut in Kurr-water o r running water, and press it a little so that the blood may stop. Then he should pass his finger on the wound or cut, within the water, from above downwards, so that water may flow on it. This way his Wudhu will be in order.
- The seventh condition is that the person doing Wudhu should have sufficient time at his disposal for Wudhu and namaz.
286. If the time is so short that by doing Wudhu, the entire prayers or a part of it will have to be offered after its time, he should perform tayammum. But if he feels that the time required for tayammum and Wudhu is equal, then he should do Wudhu.
287. If a person who should have performed tayammum owing to little time for namaz at his disposal, performs Wudhu with the niyyat of Qurbat, or for any Mustahab act, like, reading the holy Qur'an, his Wudhu is in order. Similarly, his Wudhu will be v alid if he did it for that namaz, as long as it was not devoid of niyyat of Qurbat.
- The eighth condition is that one should perform Wudhu with the niyyat of Qurbat i.e. to obey the orders of Allah. If, a person performs Wudhu, for the purpose of cooling himself or for some other purpose, the Wudhu would be void.
288. It is not necessary that one should utter the niyyat of Wudhu in words, or think about it in his mind. It is sufficient that all the acts relating to Wudhu are performed in compliance with the order of Almighty Allah.
- The ninth condition is that Wudhu should be performed in the prescribed sequence, that is, he should first wash his face, then his right hand and then his left hand, and thereafter, he should wipe his head and then the feet. As a recommended precaut ion, he should not wipe both the feet together. He should wipe the right foot first and then the left.
- The tenth condition is that the acts of Wudhu should be done one after the other, without time gap in between.
289. If there is so much gap between the acts of Wudhu, that it can not be said that it is being performed in normal succession, Wudhu will be void. But if there is a justifiable excuse, like water being exhausted or forgetting, at the time of washing or wiping, he should first ensure that all the preceding parts which he had washed or wiped have not dried up.
If they have all dried up, his Wudhu will be void. But if all the parts have not dried up, then his Wudhu will be in order. For example, while washing his left arm, he finds that his right arm has dried up, but his face is still wet, his Wudhu will be valid.
290. If a person performs acts of Wudhu consecutively, but the moisture of the previous parts dries up owing to hot weather, or excessive heat of the body or any other similar cause, his Wudhu is in order.
291. There is no harm in walking while performing Wudhu. Hence, if after washing his face and hands, a person walks a few steps and then wipes his head and feet, his Wudhu is valid.
- The eleventh condition is that a person doing Wudhu should wash his hands and face and wipe his head and feet himself. Hence, if another person makes him perform Wudhu, or helps him in pouring water over his face, or hands, or in wiping his head, or feet, his Wudhu is void.
292. If a person cannot perform Wudhu himself, he should appoint someone to assist him, even if it means washing and wiping jointly. And if that person demands any payment for that, he should be paid, provided one can afford, and one does not sustain a ny loss. But he should make niyyat of Wudhu himself, and should wipe using his own hands.
If the person himself cannot participate in actually doing Wudhu, and if he must be assisted by another person, then an obligatory precaution is that both should mak e the niyyat of Wudhu. Then his assistant will hold his hand, and help him do the wiping. And if that is not possible, he will take some moisture from his hands, and with that moisture wipe his hand and feet.
293. One should not obtain assistance in performing those acts of Wudhu, which one can perform alone.
- The twelfth condition is that there should be no constraint for using water.
294. If a person fears that he will fall ill if he performs Wudhu, or, if water is used up for Wudhu, no water will be left for drinking, he does not have to do Wudhu. If he was unaware that water was harmful to him, and he performed Wudhu, and later on, it turned out to be harmful, his Wudhu will be void.
295. If one finds that using minimum quantity for washing the face and the hands properly, will not be harmful, he should do Wudhu by restricting himself to that quantity of water.
- The thirteenth condition is that there should be no impediment in the way of water reaching the parts of Wudhu.
296. If a person finds that something has stuck to any part of Wudhu, but doubts whether it will prevent water from reaching there, he should remove that thing, or pour water under it.
297. Dirt under the fingernails would not affect Wudhu. However, when the nails are cut, and there remains dirt which prevents water from reaching the skin, then that dirt must be removed. Moreover, if the nails are unusually long, the dirt collected beneath the unusual part, ought to be cleansed.
298. If swelling takes place on the face, or hands, or the front part of the head, or the feet because of being burns or other reason, it will be sufficient to wash and wipe over the swelling. If there is an opening or hole in it, it will not be necessary to reach water under the skin.
In fact, if a part of its skin gets peeled off, it is not at all necessary to pour water under the unpeeled part. However, at times there is skin which hangs loose after having peeled off, it should be cut off, or water sh ould be poured underneath.
299. If a person doubts whether something has remained stuck to the parts of Wudhu, and if it is a doubt which is deemed sensible by the people, like, a potter doubting whether clay is stuck to his hands after his work, he should examine and clean his ha nds by scrubbing etc, till he is sure that there are no remnants, and that water will reach there.
300. If there is dirt on the part of Wudhu which will not prevent water reaching the body while washing or wiping, the Wudhu will be in order. Similarly, if some white lime splashed from the whitewash stays on the body, not obstructing water from reachin g it, Wudhu will be valid. And if one doubts whether it may obstruct, then one should remove the splashed particles.
301. If a person was aware before performing Wudhu, that on some parts of Wudhu, there is something which could prevent water from reaching them, but if he doubts after performing Wudhu whether water reached those parts or not, his Wudhu will be valid .
302. If on some part of Wudhu, there is an obstruction which at times allows water to reach the skin and at times does not, and if he doubts after having performed Wudhu about water having reached the skin, as a recommended precaution, he should repeat the Wudhu, particularly if he had not been mindful about ensuring that water reaches.
303. If after Wudhu a person finds something on the parts of Wudhu which prevents water from reaching the skin, not knowing whether it was present at the time of Wudhu, or it appeared later, his Wudhu would be in order. But if he knows that at the ti me of Wudhu he was not bothered about that obstruction, then the recommended precaution is that he should repeat Wudhu.
304. If a person doubts after Wudhu whether any obstruction was there or not, his Wudhu will be valid.