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Things which invalidate prayers » Miscellaneous rulings on the prayer of a traveller → ← Things which invalidate prayers » Omitting or adding components or conditions of the prayer

Things which invalidate prayers » Prayers of a traveller

If the following eight conditions are fulfilled, a traveller must perform ẓuhr, ʿaṣr, and ʿishāʾ prayers in their shortened (qaṣr) form; i.e. he must perform them as two rakʿah prayers.

First condition: the journey must not be less than eight farsakhs (approximately forty-four kilometres) [which is equal to approximately twenty-seven and a half miles].

Ruling 1258. If a person’s outward and return journey totals eight farsakhs – irrespective of whether or not the outward or the return journey on its own is less than four farsakhs – he must perform qaṣr prayers. Therefore, if his outward journey is three farsakhs and his return is five, or vice versa, he must perform qaṣr prayers, i.e. [he must perform the four rakʿah prayers] as two rakʿah prayers.

Ruling 1259. If a person’s outward and return journey totals eight farsakhs, then even if he does not return on the same day or night, he must perform qaṣr prayers; however, it is better that in this case, as a recommended precaution, he also performs prayers in their complete (tamām) form.

Ruling 1260. If a person’s journey is a little short of eight farsakhs, or, if he does not know whether or not his journey is eight farsakhs, he must not perform qaṣr prayers. In the event that he doubts whether or not his journey is eight farsakhs, it is not necessary for him to investigate and he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1261. If a just or a reliable person informs a person that his journey is eight farsakhs, and if he attains confidence in what he says, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1262. If someone who is certain that his journey is eight farsakhs performs qaṣr prayers and later realises that it was not eight farsakhs, he must perform them as four rakʿah prayers; and if the time has expired, he must make them up.

Ruling 1263. With regard to someone who is certain that the journey he wants to go on is not eight farsakhs, or he doubts whether or not it is eight farsakhs, in the event that he realises on the way that his journey is eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers even if only a short distance of his journey is left. And if he has performed tamām prayers, he must perform them again in their shortened form; however, if the time has expired it is not necessary for him to make them up.

Ruling 1264. If a person comes and goes a number of times between two places which are less than four farsakhs apart, he must perform tamām prayers even if the total distance travelled by him is eight farsakhs.

Ruling 1265. If there are two roads to a place – one of them less than eight farsakhs and the other eight or more farsakhs – then, in the event that one goes to that place by the road that is eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers. And if he goes by the road that is not eight farsakhs, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1266. The start of the eight farsakhs on one’s journey must be calculated from the point beyond which a person is deemed to be a traveller; this is usually the outskirts of a town. However, in some very big cities it is possible that it is the outskirts of a particular area. The end [of one’s journey] is his final destination.

Second condition: one must have the intention of travelling eight farsakhs from the commencement of his journey; i.e. he must know that he will travel eight farsakhs. Therefore, if he travels to a place that is less than eight farsakhs, and after reaching that place he makes the intention of going to a place that together with the distance he has already travelled totals eight farsakhs, then as he did not have the intention of travelling eight farsakhs from the commencement of his journey, he must perform tamām prayers. However, if he wants to travel eight farsakhs from that place, or, for example, he wants to travel a distance that together with the return journey totals eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1267. With regard to someone who does not know how many farsakhs his journey is – for example, he travels in order to find a lost person and does not know how far he must go before he finds him – he must perform tamām prayers. However, on the return journey, in the event that the distance to his home town (waṭan) or to a place where he intends to stay for ten days is eight or more farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers. Similarly, if during his journey he makes an intention to travel a distance that together with the return journey totals eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1268. A traveller must perform qaṣr prayers when he has decided to travel eight farsakhs. Therefore, if someone goes out of his town and, for example, his intention is that if he finds a friend he will travel for eight farsakhs, then, in the event that he is confident that he will find a friend, he must perform qaṣr prayers; and if he is not confident about this, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1269. If someone who has the intention of travelling eight farsakhs covers even a short distance every day, when he reaches the permitted limit (ḥadd al-tarakhkhuṣ) (the meaning of which will be explained Ruling 1304), he must perform qaṣr prayers. However, if he covers a very short distance every day, the obligatory precaution is that he must perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1270. With regard to someone like a prisoner who is travelling under the authority of someone else [i.e. a guard], in the event that he knows the journey will be eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers. However, if he does not know, he must perform tamām prayers and it is not necessary for him to inquire [about the distance of the journey], although it is better that he does.

Ruling 1271. With regard to someone who is travelling under the authority of someone else, if he knows or supposes that he will become separated from the other person before reaching four farsakhs and that he will not travel any further, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1272. With regard to someone who is travelling under the authority of someone else, if he is not confident that he will become separated from the other person before reaching four farsakhs and that he will not travel any further, he must perform tamām prayers. However, if he is confident about this, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Third condition: one must not change his intention on the way [i.e. he must not decide against travelling]. If before travelling four farsakhs one changes his mind [about travelling] or becomes unsure [about travelling], and the distance he has already travelled together with the return journey totals less than eight farsakhs, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1273. If after travelling some of the way, which together with the return journey totals eight farsakhs, one abandons the journey, in the event that he decides to remain in that place, or to return after ten days, or he is unsure about returning or staying there, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1274. If after travelling some of the way, which together with the return journey totals eight farsakhs, one changes his mind and decides to return, he must perform qaṣr prayers even if he wants to stay less than ten days in that place.

Ruling 1275. If a person travels towards a place on a journey of eight farsakhs and after going some distance he decides to go somewhere else, in the event that the distance between the first place from where he started his journey to the place where he wants to go is eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1276. If before travelling eight farsakhs one becomes unsure about continuing his journey, and while he is unsure he does not continue with his journey and later decides to continue with it, he must perform qaṣr prayers until the end of his journey.

Ruling 1277. If before travelling eight farsakhs one becomes unsure about continuing his journey, and while he is unsure he travels some distance and later decides to travel another eight farsakhs, or to travel to a place the distance to and from which totals eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers until the end of his journey.

Ruling 1278. If before travelling eight farsakhs one becomes unsure about continuing his journey, and while he is unsure he travels some distance and later decides to continue with his journey, then, in the event that the total outward and return journey minus the distance he travelled while he was unsure is less than eight farsakhs, he must perform tamām prayers. And if it is not less than eight farsakhs, his prayers must be in qaṣr form.

Fourth condition: before travelling eight farsakhs, one must not intend to pass through his home town and stay there, or to stay in a place for ten or more days. Therefore, if before travelling eight farsakhs someone intends to pass through his home town and stay there, or to stay in a place for ten or more days, he must perform tamām prayers. And if he intends to pass his home town without staying there, he must as a precautionary measure perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1279. If someone does not know whether or not he will pass through his home before travelling eight farsakhs or if he will intend to stay in a place for ten days, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1280. If someone wants to pass through his home town and stay there before travelling eight farsakhs, or if he wants to stay at a place for ten days, and similarly, if someone is unsure about passing through his home town, or he is unsure about staying at a place for ten days, then, if he changes his mind about staying in a place for ten days or passing through his home town, he must perform tamām prayers. However, if the remaining distance, even with the return journey added, is eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Fifth condition: one must not travel for an unlawful purpose. If a person travels for an unlawful purpose, such as theft, he must perform tamām prayers. The same applies if the journey itself is unlawful; for example, it is harmful for him in that it can result in death or the loss of a limb, or, for example, a wife who travels without the consent of her husband on a journey that is not obligatory. However, if it is like a journey for obligatory hajj, she must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1281. A journey which is not obligatory and which is a source of annoyance for one’s father or mother on the account of their compassion for their child, is unlawful, and on such a journey he must perform tamām prayers and fast [i.e. if he is legally obliged to fast on that day, he is not exempt from fasting as he normally would be].

Ruling 1282. With regard to someone whose journey is not unlawful and who is not travelling for any unlawful purpose, if he commits a sin on his journey – for example, he backbites or drinks alcohol – he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1283. If a person travels in order to avoid an obligatory act – irrespective of whether or not he has some other purpose for travelling as well – he must perform tamām prayers. Therefore, if a person owes some money and can repay his debt and the creditor demands it from him, in the event that he cannot pay his debt while he is travelling and he travels in order to escape the repayment of his debt, he must perform tamām prayers. However, if the purpose of his travel is something else, then even if he avoids an obligatory act on his journey, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1284. If a person travels on a usurped animal or in a usurped vehicle and he has travelled in order to escape from its owner, or, if he travels on usurped land, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1285. With regard to someone who travels in compliance with the orders of an oppressor, if he is not compelled to do so and his journey is in order to help the oppressor in his oppression, he must perform tamām prayers. However, if he is compelled, or, for example, he travels with the oppressor in order to save an oppressed person, his prayers must be performed in qaṣr form.

Ruling 1286. If a person travels for recreational and leisure purposes, his journey is not unlawful and he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1287. If a person goes hunting for amusement and fun, although it is not unlawful, his prayer during the outward journey must be performed in tamām form and during the return journey in qaṣr form, provided that it is of the prescribed distance. If the outward journey is not for hunting and the person hunts for food, he must perform his prayers in qaṣr form. The same applies if he hunts for the purposes of business and increasing his wealth, although in this case, the recommended precaution is that he should perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1288. With regard to someone who has travelled for a sinful purpose, if the return journey on its own is eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers during the return journey. And the recommended precaution is that if he has not repented, he should perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1289. With regard to someone whose journey is a sinful one, if on the way he abandons his intention to sin – irrespective of whether or not the remaining distance on its own, or the sum of both the outward and return journey from that point is eight farsakhs – he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1290. With regard to someone who has not travelled for a sinful purpose, if on the way he makes the intention of travelling the rest of the journey for a sinful purpose, he must perform tamām prayers. However, the prayers he performed in qaṣr form [before he changed his intention] are valid.

Sixth condition: one must not be a nomad, such as the desert dwellers who roam the deserts and stay wherever they find water and food for themselves and for their animals, and after a period of time move to another place. Such people must perform tamām prayers on these journeys.

Ruling 1291. If a nomad travels in search of a place to stay and pasture for his animals, for example, in the event that he travels with his possessions and equipment such that it can be said he has his house with him, he must perform tamām prayers. Otherwise, in the event that his journey is eight farsakhs, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1292. If a nomad travels for ziyārah,(1) hajj, business, or suchlike and it cannot be said that he is travelling with his house, he must perform qaṣr prayers; and if it can be said, then he must perform tamām prayers.

Seventh condition: one must not be a frequent traveller (kathīr al-safar). [The frequent traveller is of two kinds:] (1) someone whose profession is travelling – such as a driver and the captain of a ship, or a delivery person or shepherd – and (2) someone who travels frequently even though his work does not require him to do so – such as someone who travels three days in a week even if it is for recreational and touristic purposes – such a person must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1293. With regard to someone whose profession is travelling, if he travels for another purpose, such as ziyārah or hajj, he must perform qaṣr prayers unless he is commonly known to be a ‘frequent traveller’, such as someone who always travels three days in a week. However, if, for example, a driver of a car is hired for a ziyārah trip and on that trip he also performs ziyārah, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1294. A tour leader (someone who travels in order to take pilgrims to Mecca), in the event that his profession is travelling, must perform tamām prayers. However, if his profession is not travelling and he only travels in the hajj season in order to take pilgrims, then, in the event that his trip is a short one – for example, two or three weeks – his prayers must be performed in qaṣr form; and if it is a long trip – such as three months – his prayers must be performed in tamām form. If he doubts whether or not he can be called a frequent traveller, then as an obligatory precaution he must perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1295. In order for someone to be called a ‘driver’ and suchlike, it is a requirement that he intends to continue driving and his resting time must not be longer than usual for drivers. Therefore, if someone, for example, travels one day a week he cannot be called a driver. Furthermore, someone can be called a ‘frequent traveller’ if he travels a minimum of ten times a month and travels on ten days a month, or spends ten days a month travelling, albeit on two or three separate journeys, on condition that he intends to continue doing this for six months in one year or three months every year for two or more years. In such a case, his prayers on all his journeys, even on his non-repetitive ones, must be performed in tamām form; and in the first two weeks he must, as an obligatory precaution, perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers. If the numbers or days of his journey in a month comes to eight or nine, then based on obligatory precaution he must perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers on all the journeys. And if the number of days is less than this, he must perform his prayers in qaṣr form.

Ruling 1296. Someone whose profession is travelling in a part of the year – such as a driver who is hired for his services only in either summer or winter – must perform tamām prayers on that journey. And the recommended precaution is that he should perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1297. A driver or a salesperson who comes and goes in distances of two or three farsakhs from a town must perform qaṣr prayers in the event that he happens to travel eight farsakhs.

Ruling 1298. Someone whose profession is travelling – whether he stays in his home town for ten or more days and had an intention from the outset to stay for ten days, or he stays without any such intention – must perform tamām prayers on the first journey he goes on after ten days. The same applies if he stays in a place that is not his home town for ten days, whether he had an intention to do so or not. However, with regard to a herdsman or a driver who is hired, the recommended precaution is that on the first journey he goes on after ten days, he should perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1299. With regard to someone whose profession is travelling, it is not a condition that he travels three times in order for his prayers to be in tamām form; rather, whenever the title ‘driver’ and suchlike can be applied to him, even if it is on his first journey, his prayers must be performed in tamām form.

Ruling 1300. With regard to someone whose profession is travelling, such as a herdsman or driver, in case travelling causes him excessive difficulty and exhaustion that is more than usual, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1301. Someone who travels around different cities and has not adopted a home town for himself must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1302. With regard to someone whose profession is not travelling, if, for example, he has to continuously travel to a town or village in order to pick up a commodity that he transports, he must perform qaṣr prayers unless he is a frequent traveller, the criteria for which was explained in Ruling 1295.

Ruling 1303. With regard to someone who has disregarded a place as his home town and wants to adopt another home town, if he cannot be given one of the titles that requires one to perform tamām prayers – such as ‘frequent traveller’ or ‘nomad’ – he must perform qaṣr prayers on his travels.

Eighth condition: one must reach the permitted limit (ḥadd al-tarakhkhuṣ) if he starts his journey from his home town. However, if he travels from a place that is not his home town, then the permitted limit does not apply to him and he must perform his prayers in qaṣr form from the moment he sets out on his journey from his place of residence.

Ruling 1304. The permitted limit is the place where the people of a town – including those who live on its outskirts and are considered to be residents of the town – cannot see a traveller; and its sign is that he cannot see the people of the town.

Ruling 1305. A traveller who is returning to his home town must perform qaṣr prayers until the time he enters his home town. Similarly, a traveller who wants to stay somewhere for ten days must perform qaṣr prayers until the time he reaches that place.

Ruling 1306. If a town’s location happens to be elevated such that its residents can be seen from around it, or, if it happens to be in a depression such that if one went a short distance away from it he would not see its residents, then, if a resident of that town travels and reaches a distance such that had the town’s location been at ground level he would not be able to see its residents, he must perform qaṣr prayers. Similarly, if the elevation or depression of the road he is travelling on is more than what is normal, he must take into account a normal type of road [in determining whether he must perform qaṣr or tamām prayers].

Ruling 1307. If before reaching the permitted limit a person who is sitting on a ship or train starts performing prayers with the intention of tamām prayers, but before performing rukūʿ of the third rakʿah he reaches the permitted limit, he must perform prayers in qaṣr form.

Ruling 1308. If in the situation mentioned above one reaches the permitted limit after performing rukūʿ of the third rakʿah, he must perform another prayer in qaṣr form and it is not necessary for him to complete the first prayer.

Ruling 1309. If a person is certain that he has reached the permitted limit and performs his prayer in qaṣr form, and later he realises that when he performed his prayer he had not actually reached the permitted limit, he must perform the prayer again. If when he performs the prayer again he has still not reached the permitted limit, he must perform the prayer in tamām form, but if he has passed it, he must perform it in qaṣr form. And if the time for the prayer has expired, he must perform it in accordance with what his duty was when the prescribed time for it expired.

Ruling 1310. If a person’s eyesight is not normal, he must perform qaṣr prayers from the point where people of average eyesight would not be able to see the residents of the town.

Ruling 1311. If while travelling one doubts whether or not he has reached the permitted limit, he must perform tamām prayers.

Ruling 1312. If a traveller who passes his home town on his journey stays there, he must perform tamām prayers; otherwise [i.e. if he does not stay there], the obligatory precaution is that he must perform both qaṣr and tamām prayers.

Ruling 1313. A traveller who reaches his home town on his journey and stays there must perform tamām prayers while he is there. However, if he wants to travel eight farsakhs from there, or, for example, he wants to travel four farsakhs going and four farsakhs returning, then when he reaches the permitted limit he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1314. A place that one adopts as his permanent residence is his home town, irrespective of whether or not he was born there, or it was the home of his parents, or he selected it himself for his residence.

Ruling 1315. If a person intends to stay for a short time in a location that is not his home town and to later move to another place, that location is not considered to be his home town.

Ruling 1316. A place that one has adopted as his residence is ruled as his home town – even if he does not intend to always live there – provided that he cannot be commonly regarded as being a traveller there, such that were he to choose to temporarily stay somewhere else for ten days or more, people would still say the first place is his place of residence.

Ruling 1317. With regard to a person who resides in two places – for example, he resides six months in one town and six months in another – both places are his home towns. Furthermore, if he has chosen to reside in more than two places, then all of them are considered to be his home towns.

Ruling 1318. Some jurists have said: with regard to a person who owns a residential home somewhere, that place is ruled as his home town if he stays there for six continuous months with the intention of residing there and as long as that house belongs to him. Therefore, whenever he travels there he must perform tamām prayers. However, this rule is not established.

Ruling 1319. If a person reaches a place that was once his home town but which he now disregards [as being his home town], he must not perform tamām prayers there even if he has not adopted another place as his home town.

Ruling 1320. A traveller who has the intention of staying somewhere for ten consecutive days or knows that he has no choice but to stay somewhere for ten days, must perform tamām prayers in that place.

Ruling 1321. It is not necessary for a traveller who wants to stay somewhere for ten days to have the intention to stay there on the first night and on the eleventh night. Rather, [it is sufficient if] he makes the intention that he will stay there from sunrise on the first day until sunset of the tenth day, [and if he does so,] he must perform tamām prayers. The same applies if, for example, he makes the intention to stay there from noon on the first day until noon on the eleventh day.

Ruling 1322. A traveller who wants to stay somewhere for ten days must perform tamām prayers if he wants to stay in one place for ten days. Therefore, if he intends to stay, for example, ten days in Najaf and Hilla, or in Tehran and Karaj, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1323. With regard to a traveller who wants to stay somewhere for ten days, if from the outset he intends during the ten days to travel to a surrounding place – which is commonly regarded as being a different place – and if the distance to it is less than four farsakhs, then, if the period of his outward and return journeys is such that it does not conflict with him staying for ten days, he must perform tamām prayers. However, if it does conflict, then he must perform qaṣr prayers. For example, if he intends from the outset to travel for one complete day or for one complete night, then this conflicts with his staying and he must perform qaṣr prayers. However, in the event that his intention is, for example, to travel for half a day and return, even if the return is after sunset, then he must perform his prayers in tamām form unless this type of travelling happens so often that he is commonly regarded as residing in two or more places.

Ruling 1324. A traveller who has not decided to stay somewhere for ten days but whose intention is, for example, that if his friend comes or if he finds a good house then he will stay there for ten days, must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1325. With regard to a person who has decided to stay somewhere for ten days, if he deems it probable that some obstacle to his staying there will arise, and if rational people would consider this probability to be significant, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1326. If a traveller knows, for example, that ten days or more remain before the end of the month and he intends to stay somewhere until the end of the month, he must perform tamām prayers. However, if he does not know how long is left until the end of the month and makes an intention to stay until the end of the month, he must perform qaṣr prayers even if ten days or more remain from the time he made the intention until the last day of the month.

Ruling 1327. If a traveller intends to stay somewhere for ten days, in the event that before he performs a four rakʿah prayer he abandons the idea of staying there, or he becomes unsure of whether to stay there or go to another place, in such a case, he must perform qaṣr prayers. However, if after performing a four rakʿah prayer he abandons the idea of staying there or becomes unsure, he must perform tamām prayers as long as he stays there.

Ruling 1328. If a traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days keeps a fast and after the time for ẓuhr prayers he changes his mind about staying there, in the event that he has performed a four rakʿah prayer, the fasts he keeps there are valid and he must perform tamām prayers. However, if he has not performed a four rakʿah prayer, he must, as an obligatory precaution, complete that day’s fast and also make it up; he must also perform qaṣr prayers and he cannot fast on the remaining days.

Ruling 1329. If a traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days changes his mind about staying but doubts whether he changed his mind about staying after or before he performed a four rakʿah prayer, he must perform qaṣr prayers.

Ruling 1330. If a traveller starts performing a prayer with the intention of performing a qaṣr prayer and during it he decides to stay in that place for ten days or more, he must complete his prayer as a four rakʿah prayer.

Ruling 1331. If a traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days changes his mind during his first four rakʿah prayer, in the event that he has not yet started to perform the third rakʿah, he must complete his prayer as a two rakʿah prayer and perform his remaining prayers in qaṣr form. The same applies if he has started to perform the third rakʿah but has yet not gone into rukūʿ, he must sit down and complete the prayer in qaṣr form; however, if he has gone into rukūʿ, he can either break his prayer or complete it, and he must perform it again in qaṣr form.

Ruling 1332. If a traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days stays there for more than ten days, he must perform tamām prayers as long as he does not travel, and it is not necessary for him to make another intention to stay for ten days.

Ruling 1333. A traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days must keep obligatory fasts, and he can also keep recommended fasts and perform the nāfilah of ẓuhr, ʿaṣr, and ʿishāʾ.

Ruling 1334. With regard to a traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days, if after performing a four rakʿah prayer within its prescribed time or after staying there for ten days – even if he has not performed one prayer in tamām form – he wants to go to a place that is less than four farsakhs away and then come back and stay in the first place again for ten days or less, in such a case, he must perform tamām prayers from the time he goes until the time he comes back and after coming back as well. However, if his returning to the place of his residence is only because it is on the way, and if the distance of his journey is eight farsakhs, then it is necessary for him to perform qaṣr prayers while going, returning, and at his place of residence.

Ruling 1335. With regard to a traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days, if after performing a four rakʿah prayer within its prescribed time he wants to go somewhere else that is less than eight farsakhs away and stay there for ten days, he must perform tamām prayers while going and at the place where he intends to stay for ten days. However, if he wants to go to a place that is eight farsakhs away or further, he must perform qaṣr prayers while going. And in the event that he does not want to stay there for ten days, he must perform qaṣr prayers while he is there.

Ruling 1336. With regard to a traveller who has made the intention to stay somewhere for ten days, if after performing a four rakʿah prayer within its prescribed time he wants to go somewhere else that is less than eight farsakhs away, then, in the event that he is unsure whether or not he will return to his first destination, or he is totally unmindful about returning there, or he wants to return but is unsure whether or not he will stay there for ten days, or he is unmindful about staying there for ten days or travelling from there, in these cases, he must perform tamām prayers from the time he goes until the time he returns and after he returns as well.

Ruling 1337. If someone makes an intention to stay somewhere for ten days because he thinks his friends want to stay there for ten days, and after performing a four rakʿah prayer within its prescribed time he realises they did not have such an intention, then even if he changes his mind to stay there he must perform tamām prayers as long as he stays there.

Ruling 1338. If a traveller happens to stay somewhere for thirty days – for example, throughout those thirty days he was unsure about going or staying – he must perform tamām prayers after thirty days have passed even if he stays there for a short time [after the thirty days].

Ruling 1339. If a traveller wants to stay somewhere for nine days or less, and if after staying there for nine days or less he wants to stay for another nine days or less, and so on until thirty days, he must perform tamām prayers from the thirty-first day.

Ruling 1340. After thirty days, a traveller must perform tamām prayers if he has stayed in one place for those thirty days. Therefore, if he stays part of that period in one place and part of it in another, he must perform qaṣr prayers even after thirty days.

(1) Ziyārah is a visitation to the place of burial of a holy personality or to a holy place.
Things which invalidate prayers » Miscellaneous rulings on the prayer of a traveller → ← Things which invalidate prayers » Omitting or adding components or conditions of the prayer
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