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Things which invalidate prayers » Prayers of a traveller → ← Things which invalidate prayers » Making up (qaḍāʾ) a forgotten sajdah

Things which invalidate prayers » Omitting or adding components or conditions of the prayer

Ruling 1249. Whenever a person intentionally omits or adds something that is an obligatory component of the prayer, even to the extent of one word, the prayer is invalid.

Ruling 1250. If on account of ignorance a person adds or omits something that is an obligatory rukn, the prayer is invalid. As for omitting something that is obligatory but is not a rukn by someone who is inculpably ignorant – such as someone who trusts the words of a reliable person or a credible manual of Islamic rulings (risālah), and afterwards he realises that the person or the manual was wrong – this does not invalidate the prayer. Furthermore, in the event that a person does not know the relevant ruling, even if it is his own fault [for not knowing it], and he recites Sūrat al-Ḥamd and the other surah of ṣubḥ, maghrib, and ʿishāʾ prayers in a whisper, or he recites Sūrat al-Ḥamd and the other surah of ẓuhr and ʿaṣr aloud, or he performs ẓuhr, ʿaṣr, and ʿishāʾ prayers as four rakʿah prayers when he is a traveller, in these cases, his prayer is valid.

Ruling 1251. If during or after prayers one learns that his wuḍūʾ or ghusl was invalid, or that he started performing prayers without wuḍūʾ or ghusl, he must perform the prayer again with wuḍūʾ or ghusl; and if the time for the prayer has expired, he must make it up.

Ruling 1252. If after going into rukūʿ one remembers that he forgot to perform the two sajdahs in the previous rakʿah, then based on obligatory precaution his prayer is invalid. However, if he remembers this before going into rukūʿ, he must go back, perform the two sajdahs, stand up, recite Sūrat al-Ḥamd and the other surah or al-tasbīḥāt al-arbaʿah, and then complete the prayer. And after prayers, based on recommended precaution, he should perform sajdatā al-sahw for the additional standing.

Ruling 1253. If before saying ‘assalāmu ʿalaynā’ and ‘assalāmu ʿalaykum’ [in the salām of the prayer] one remembers that he has not performed the two sajdahs in the last rakʿah, he must perform the two sajdahs and then say tashahhud and the salām of the prayer again.

Ruling 1254. If before the salām of the prayer one remembers that he has not performed one rakʿah or more from the end of the prayer, he must perform what he had forgotten.

Ruling 1255. If after the salām of the prayer one remembers that he has not performed one rakʿah or more from the end of the prayer, in the event that he has done something that were he to do it intentionally or inadvertently during prayers it would invalidate the prayer – such as turning his back to qibla – his prayer is invalid. However, if he has not done anything that were he to do it intentionally or inadvertently during prayers it would invalidate the prayer, he must immediately perform what he had forgotten and for the additional salām, he must, based on obligatory precaution, perform sajdatā al-sahw.

Ruling 1256. Whenever after the salām of the prayer one does something that were he to do it intentionally or inadvertently during prayers it would invalidate them – such as turning his back to qibla – and he later remembers that he has not performed the two last sajdahs, his prayer is invalid. However, if before doing something that invalidates prayers he remembers this, then he must perform the two sajdahs that he had forgotten and say tashahhud and the salām of the prayer again; and based on obligatory precaution, he must perform sajdatā al-sahw for the salām that he first said.

Ruling 1257. If a person realises that he has performed a prayer before its prescribed time, he must perform it again; and if its time has expired, he must make it up. If he realises that he performed it with his back to qibla, or he had turned ninety degrees or more [away from qibla], in the event that its time has not expired he must perform it again. However, if its time has expired, then in the event that he was uncertain or was ignorant about the rule, it is obligatory on him to make it up; otherwise, it is not. And if he realises that he had turned less than ninety degrees, and he did not have a legitimate excuse for turning away from qibla – for example, he was searching for the direction of qibla, or he was negligent in learning the ruling – then based on obligatory precaution he must perform the prayer again, irrespective of whether there is time or not. However, if he did have a legitimate excuse, then it is not necessary for him to perform the prayer again.
Things which invalidate prayers » Prayers of a traveller → ← Things which invalidate prayers » Making up (qaḍāʾ) a forgotten sajdah
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