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Najis things » Laws of impurities (najāsāt) → ← Najis things » Ways of establishing impurity (najāsah)

Najis things » How a pure (ṭāhir) object becomes impure (najis)

Ruling 119. If a pure object touches an impure object and both or one of them is wet – such that the wetness of one transfers onto the other – the pure object also becomes impure; however, it does not become impure through multiple intermediaries [i.e. the transfer of impurity is limited to two intermediaries].

An example: if the right hand has become impure (mutanajjis) with urine, and [after drying,] that hand touches the left hand with a new wetness, this touching causes the left hand to become impure; and if after drying, the left hand touches some wet clothing, for example, the clothing also becomes impure; but, if the clothing touches some other wet object, that other object is not ruled as being impure. Furthermore, if the wetness is so little that it does not transfer onto another object, the object that was pure does not become impure even if it touches an intrinsic impurity.

Ruling 120. If a pure object touches an impure object and one doubts whether or not both or one of them was wet, the pure object does not become impure.

Ruling 121. If there are two objects and a person does not know which one is pure and which one is impure, and afterwards a pure object that is wet touches one of them, it is not necessary to avoid it [i.e. it is not ruled as being impure], except in some cases, like when both objects were previously impure or when a pure object that is wet touches both objects.

Ruling 122. If the ground, some cloth, or a similar thing is wet, only that part of it that an impurity touches becomes impure and its other parts remain pure. The same applies to a cucumber, melon, etc.

Ruling 123. Whenever syrup, oil, or a similar thing is of a consistency such that when some quantity of it is removed, it does not leave an empty space [due to the space refilling], then even if one part of it becomes impure, the entire quantity becomes impure. However, if it is such that when a part of it is removed it leaves an empty space – even if afterwards it becomes filled – then only the part that the impurity touches is impure. Therefore, if [in the latter scenario] mouse droppings fall into it, only the part that the droppings touch is impure and the rest is pure.

Ruling 124. If a fly or similar insect sits on an impure object that is wet and afterwards it sits on a pure object that is also wet, in the event that one knows that impurity was carried along with the insect, the pure object becomes impure; and if one does not know, the pure object remains pure.

Ruling 125. If a part of the body perspires and that part becomes impure, and the sweat goes from that part to another part, then whichever part the sweat touches becomes impure; and if the sweat does not go to any other part, the rest of the body is pure.

Ruling 126. If thick phlegm from the nose or throat contains blood, the part that contains blood is impure and the rest of it is pure. Therefore, if the phlegm touches the outer mouth or nose, the area that one is certain the impure phlegm touched is impure, and the area about which one is doubtful whether the impure phlegm touched or not is pure.

Ruling 127. If a pitcher that has a hole in the bottom of it is placed on impure earth, in the event that water from the pitcher stops flowing, collects under it, and is considered to be one with the pitcher’s water, the pitcher’s water becomes impure. However, if the pitcher’s water flows with pressure, it does not become impure.

Ruling 128. If an object enters the body and comes into contact with some impurity, in the event that after coming out it is not tainted with the impurity, it is pure. Therefore, if an apparatus for inserting enema or the water from it enters the anus, or, if a needle, knife, or similar thing is inserted into the body and after coming out it is not tainted with any impurity, it is not impure. The same applies to saliva or mucus of the nose if it comes into contact with blood while inside the body and is not tainted with blood after coming out.
Najis things » Laws of impurities (najāsāt) → ← Najis things » Ways of establishing impurity (najāsah)
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