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242. In Wudhu, it is obligatory to wash the face and hands, and to wipe the front portion of the head and the upper part of two feet.

The length of the face should be washed from the upper part of the forehead, where hair grow, up to the farthest end of the chin, and its breadth should be washed to the part covered between the thumb and the middle finger. If even a small part of this area is left out, Wudhu will be void. Thus, in order to ensure that the prescribed part has been fully washed, one should also wash a bit of the adjacent parts.

If the hands or the face of a person are larger or smaller than normal, he should observe how people normally wash their faces, and follow accordingly. Also, if he has hair on part of his forehead, or the frontal part of his head is bald, he should wash his forehead as is usually washed by the people.

If a person suspects that there is dirt or something else in the eyebrows, and corners of his eyes, and on his lips, which does not permit water to reach them, and if that suspicion is reasonable, he should examine it before performing Wudhu, and re move any such thing if it is there.

If the skin of the face is visible from under the hair, one should make the water reach the skin, but if it is not visible, it is sufficient to wash the hair, and it is not necessary to make the water reach beneath the hair.

If a person doubts whether his skin is visible from under the hair of the face or not, he should, as an obligatory precaution, wash his hair, and also make the water reach the skin.

While performing Wudhu, it is not obligatory that one should wash the inner parts of the nose, nor of the lips and eyes which cannot be seen when they close. However, in order to ensure that all parts have been washed, it is obligatory that some portion of these parts (i.e. inner parts of nose, lips and eyes) are also included. And if a person did not know how much of the face should be washed, and does not remember whether he has washed his face thoroughly in Wudhu already performed, his prayer s will be valid, and there will be no need to do fresh Wudhu for the ensuing prayers.

The face and hands should be washed from above downwards, and if one washes the opposite way, his Wudhu will be void.

If a person makes his hand wet, and passes it over his face and hands, and if the moisture in the hand is enough to cover both thoroughly, it will be sufficient. It is not necessary that water flows on the face or the hands.

After washing the face, one should first wash the right hand and then the left hand, from the elbows to the tips of the fingers.

In order to ensure that each elbow has been washed thoroughly, one should include some portion above the elbow in washing.

If before washing his face, a person has washed his hands up to the wrist, he should, while performing Wudhu, wash them up to the tips of the fingers, and if he washes them only up to the wrist, his Wudhu is void.

While performing Wudhu, it is obligatory to wash the face and the hands once, and it is recommended to wash them twice. Washing them three or more times is haraam. As regards to which washing should be treated as the first, it will depend upon wa shing the face and hand thoroughly, leaving no room for precaution, with the niyyat of Wudhu. So, if he pours water on his face ten times with the intention of the first washing, there is no harm, but when he will then wash with the niyyat of Wudhu, it wi ll be called the first time. Thus, he can go on pouring water on his face several times, and in the final wash, make the niyyat of Wudhu. But if he follows this procedure, then the face and the hands should be washed once only, as an obligatory precaution .

After washing both the hands, one performing Wudhu should wipe the front part of his head with the wetness which is in his hand; the recommended precaution is that he should wipe it with the palm of his right hand, from the upper part, downwards.

The part on which wiping should be performed, is one fourth frontal part of the head. It is sufficient to wipe as much at any place in this part of the head, although the recommended precaution is that the length should be equal to one finger, and i ts breadth should be equal to three joined fingers.

It is not necessary that the wiping of the head should be performed on its skin. It is also in order if a man wipes the hair on the front of his head. However, if the hair are so long that when combed they fall on his face, or on other parts of his head, he should wipe his hand on the roots of his hair, or part the hair and wipe the skin. If a person collects his hair on the front side of his head, or on other parts of his head and wipes them, or if he wipes the hair of other places, such a wiping w ould be void.

After wiping the head, one should wipe with the moisture present in one's hands, one's feet from any toe of the foot up to the joint. As a recommended precaution, the right foot should be wiped with the right hand, and the left foot with the left hand.

Wiping of the feet can have any breadth, but it is better that the breadth of the wiping should be equal to three joined fingers, and it is still better that the wiping of the entire foot is done with the entire hand.

As a precaution, at the time of wiping the foot, one should place one's hand on the toes and then draw it to the joint, or that one should place the hand on the joint and draw it to the toes. One should not simply place the whole hand on the foot , and pull it a little.

While wiping one's hand and feet, it is necessary to move one's hand on them, and if the feet and head are moved leaving the hand stationary, Wudhu would be void. However, there is no harm if the head and feet move slightly, while the hand is be ing moved for wiping.

The parts of wiping should be dry, and if they are so wet that the wetness of the palm of the hand has no effect on them, the wiping will be void. However, there is no harm if the wetness on those part is so insignificant, that the moisture of th e palm overcomes it.

If wetness disappears in the palm, it cannot be made wet with fresh water. In that situation, the person performing Wudhu should obtain moisture from his beard. If he obtains moisture from any part other than the beard, it would be improper, and is a matter of Ishkal.

If the wetness of palm is just enough for wiping the head, then as an obligatory precaution, one should wipe the head first, and for the wiping of feet, the wetness should be obtained from the beard.

Wiping performed on socks or shoes is void. But if one is unable to remove his socks or shoes because of severe cold, or fear of life, or a robber, the obligatory precaution is that he will wipe on the socks or shoes, and then perform tayammum al so. And if a person is under Taqayya (hiding one's faith), he can perform wiping on his socks and shoes.

If the upper part of his feet is najis, and it cannot also be washed for wiping, one should perform tayammum.
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