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Obligatory baths (Ghusl) » Laws of ritual impurity (janābah)

Ruling 344. A person becomes junub(1) in two ways:

1.
sexual intercourse;
2. ejaculation of semen, whether he is asleep or awake, and whether it is a little or a lot, with or without lust, voluntarily or involuntarily.

Ruling 345. If some fluid comes out of the penis and the man does not know whether it is semen, urine, or something else – in the event that it comes out with three characteristics: it is accompanied by lust, it comes out with a gush, and one’s body feels weak after it has come out – then that fluid is ruled as being semen; and if none of these three characteristics are present or if even one of them is not, it is not ruled as being semen. However, in the case of a sick person, it is not necessary that the fluid comes out with a gush or that at the time of coming out his body feels weak; rather, if the only characteristic present is that it comes out with lust, it is ruled as being semen.

As for the fluid that is discharged from the vagina when a woman engages in foreplay or imagines lustful thoughts and which is not enough to dirty other places [such as her clothing], it is pure and does not require ghusl to be performed and nor does it invalidate wuḍūʾ. However, if the discharged fluid is a lot – to the extent that it can be called an ‘ejaculation’ and it dirties clothing – then in case it is discharged when the woman reaches sexual climax and complete sexual satisfaction (orgasm), it is impure and causes janābah. In fact, even if it is not discharged at that moment, based on obligatory precaution it is impure and causes janābah. And whenever a woman doubts whether or not a discharge of fluid was to this extent, or she doubts whether or not fluid was discharged at all, performing ghusl is not obligatory on her and nor does it invalidate wuḍūʾ and ghusl.

Ruling 346. If some fluid is discharged by a man who is not sick and that fluid has one of the three characteristics mentioned in the previous ruling, but the man does not know whether or not it had any of the other characteristics, [he will not be junub and] in the event that he had wuḍūʾ before the discharge of the fluid, that wuḍūʾ remains valid. And if he did not have wuḍūʾ, he only needs to perform wuḍūʾ [when required], and performing ghusl is not obligatory on him.

Ruling 347. It is recommended that one urinates after ejaculation; if he does not urinate, and after performing ghusl some fluid comes out about which he does not know whether it is semen or some other fluid, it is ruled as being semen.

Ruling 348. If a person has sexual intercourse with a woman and penetration occurs up to or more than the circumcised part of the penis – irrespective of whether the penetration was in the vagina or in the anus, and whether the man had reached the age of legal responsibility (bulūgh) or not – then, even if semen is not ejaculated, both the man and the woman become junub.

Ruling 349. If a person doubts whether or not penetration has occurred up to the circumcised part of the penis, ghusl is not obligatory on him.

Ruling 350. If, God forbid, a man has sexual intercourse with an animal and the man ejaculates, ghusl is sufficient. If he does not ejaculate and he had wuḍūʾ before penetration, again ghusl is sufficient; but if he did not have wuḍūʾ, the obligatory precaution is that he must perform ghusl and wuḍūʾ. The ruling is the same in the case of a man having sexual intercourse with another man or with a boy [God forbid].

Ruling 351. If a person feels the movement of semen but does not ejaculate, or, if one doubts whether semen has been ejaculated or not, ghusl is not obligatory on him.

Ruling 352. If someone cannot perform ghusl but it is possible for him to perform tayammum, he can still have sexual intercourse with his wife even after the time for prayers has set in.

Ruling 353. If a person sees semen on his clothes and knows that it has come from himself and he has not performed ghusl, he must perform ghusl and make up [i.e. perform as qaḍāʾ] those prayers that he is certain of having performed while he was junub. However, it is not necessary for him to make up those prayers that he deems only probable of having performed before ejaculation of the semen.

(1) Junub is the term used to refer to a person who is in the state of janābah.
Obligatory baths (Ghusl) » Things that are unlawful (ḥarām) for a junub → ← Obligatory (wājib) ritual bathing (ghusl) » Introduction
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