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# Kinds of blood seen by women » Categories of women in menstruation

Ruling 468. There are six categories of women in menstruation:

Specific rules apply to each of these categories, which will be discussed in the following rulings.

Ruling 469. Women who have a habit of time and duration are of two types:

Ruling 470. If a woman with a habit of time – irrespective of whether she also has a habit of duration or not – experiences bleeding during the time of her habit, or on one or more days earlier than the time of her habit such that it can be said that her habit has moved forward, then even if the bleeding does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ, she must act according to the rules that were mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ. In the event that afterwards, she realises that it was not ḥayḍ – for example, her bleeding stops in less than three days – she must make up the ritual acts of worship that she did not perform [when she considered her bleeding to be ḥayḍ].

Ruling 471. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding on all the days of her habit and on a few days before and after her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all of those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. If the number of days exceed ten, then only the bleeding during her habit is ḥayḍ and the bleeding before and after that is istiḥāḍah, and she must make up the ritual acts of worship that she did not perform before and after her habit.

If a woman experiences bleeding on all the days of her habit and on a few days before her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all of those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. If it exceeds ten days, then only the bleeding on the days of her habit is considered to be ḥayḍ – even if the bleeding does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ and the days before her habit had the attributes of ḥayḍ – and the bleeding before her habit is considered to be istiḥāḍah. And in the event that on those days she did not perform ritual acts of worship, she must make them up.

If a woman experiences bleeding on all the days of her habit and on a few days after her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all of those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. And if the total is more than ten days, then only the bleeding on the days of her habit is considered to be ḥayḍ and the rest is considered to be istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 472. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding on some of the days of her habit and on a few days before her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. If the bleeding exceeds ten days, then the bleeding on the days of her habit plus the few days before that – which total the number of days of her habit – is ḥayḍ, and the bleeding on the first few days is considered to be istiḥāḍah. If she experiences bleeding on some days of her habit and on a few days after her habit, and the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all the days is ḥayḍ. And if it exceeds ten days, then the bleeding on the days of her habit plus a few days after that – which total the number of days of her habit – is ḥayḍ, and the bleeding on the remaining days is considered to be istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 473. If a woman with a habit experiences bleeding for three or more days and after that her bleeding stops, and if she then experiences bleeding again and the gap between the two bleedings is less than ten days, and if all the days on which she experiences bleeding plus the days on which her bleeding stops total more than ten – for example, she experiences bleeding for five days, then her bleeding stops for five days, and then she experiences bleeding again for five days – in such a case, there are a few scenarios to consider:

a. all of her first bleeding has moved ahead to such an extent that her habit can be said to have moved forward;

b. if all of her first bleeding were to be considered ḥayḍ, the number of days of her second bleeding that she experienced on the days of her habit would not exceed ten. For example, if the habit of a woman was from the third of the month to the tenth, and she now experiences bleeding from the first of the month until the end of the fourth day, then her bleeding stops for two days, and then she experiences bleeding again until the fifteenth, in such a case, all of her first bleeding is ḥayḍ. Similarly, the second bleeding until the end of the tenth day is ḥayḍ.

Ruling 474. If a woman with a habit of time and duration does not experience bleeding on the days of her habit, and at another time she experiences bleeding for the same number of days as her ḥayḍ, she must consider it to be ḥayḍ irrespective of whether she experienced it before the time of her habit or after it.

Ruling 475. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding on the days of her habit for three days or more, and the number of days are more or less than the days of her habit, and if after her bleeding stops she experiences bleeding again on the same number of days as her habit, then in such a case, there are a few scenarios to consider:

Ruling 476. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding for more than ten days, the bleeding that she experiences on the days of her habit – even if it does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ – is ḥayḍ; and the bleeding that she experiences after the days of her habit – even if it has the attributes of ḥayḍ – is istiḥāḍah. For example, if a woman whose habit is from the first of the month to the seventh experiences bleeding from the first of the month to the twelfth, the first seven days are ḥayḍ and the next five days are istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 477. Women who have a habit of time and whose habit has a fixed start date are of two types:

Ruling 478. If a woman with a habit of time experiences bleeding on the days of her habit, or on two or three days before her habit, she must act according to the rules mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ as per the details in Ruling 470. In cases other than these two – for example, when a woman experiences bleeding so much in advance of her habit that it could not be said her habit has moved forward, rather, it would be said that she has experienced bleeding outside the days of her habit, or she experiences bleeding after the days of her habit then, in the event that the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ, she must act according to the rules mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ. Similarly, if it does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ but she knows that the bleeding will continue for three days [she must act according to the rules mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ]. However, if she does not know whether or not it will continue for three days, the obligatory precaution is that she must do the things that are obligatory on a mustaḥāḍah and refrain from doing the things that are unlawful for a ḥāʾiḍ.

Ruling 479. If a woman with a habit of time experiences bleeding on the days of her habit and the number of days that her bleeding lasts for is more than ten, and if on some of the days her bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on some other days it does not, and if the number of days that her bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ is not less than three nor more than ten, then in such a case, she must consider her bleeding on those days when it has the attributes of ḥayḍ to be ḥayḍ and the rest to be istiḥāḍah. If this type of bleeding is repeated – for example, four days with the attributes of ḥayḍ, followed by four days with the attributes of istiḥāḍah, and then followed by four days with the attributes of ḥayḍ again – she must consider only the first four days to be ḥayḍ and all the rest to be istiḥāḍah. If the bleeding with the attributes of ḥayḍ lasts for less than three days, she must consider it to be ḥayḍ and determine the number of days of it in one of two ways: either by referring to her close relatives, or by selecting the number of days. If it is more than ten days, she must consider part of it to be ḥayḍ by one of these two ways. And if a woman cannot distinguish the amount of ḥayḍ by means of its attributes – i.e. she finds that all the blood has the same attributes, or the blood that has the attributes of ḥayḍ lasts for more than ten days or less than three days – then she must consider it to be ḥayḍ according to the number of days of the habit of some of her close relatives, whether they be her paternal or maternal relatives, alive or dead. However, in this case, two conditions must be fulfilled:

Ruling 480. A woman with a habit of time cannot consider her bleeding to be ḥayḍ at times other than the time of her habit. Therefore, if the start of her habit is known – for example, she used to experience bleeding every month from the first of the month, and sometimes her bleeding would stop on the fifth day and at other times on the sixth – then, in the event that in one month she experiences bleeding for twelve days and she cannot determine her duration by means of the attributes of ḥayḍ, she must consider the first of the month to be the beginning of ḥayḍ. For the duration, she must refer to what was said in the previous ruling; and if the middle or end of her habit is known, in the event that her bleeding exceeds ten days, she must consider the duration to be such that the end or middle of it is in accordance with the time of her habit.

Ruling 481. A woman with a habit of time who experiences bleeding for more than ten days and cannot determine it according to what was said in Ruling 479 can choose any number of days from three to ten that she feels is appropriate for the duration of her ḥayḍ; and it is better that she considers it to be seven days, if she feels it appropriate for herself. Of course, the number of days that she considers to be ḥayḍ must be in accordance with the time of her habit, as mentioned in the previous ruling.

[Women with a habit of duration are of two types:]

Ruling 482. If a woman with a habit of duration experiences bleeding for more or less than the number of days of her habit and it does not exceed ten days, she must consider it all to be ḥayḍ. If it exceeds ten days, in the event that all the blood is similar, the days from the start of bleeding until the number of days of her habit is considered to be ḥayḍ and the rest is considered to be istiḥāḍah. If all the bleeding is not the same, rather, on some days it has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on others the attributes of istiḥāḍah, and if the number of days on which it has the attributes of ḥayḍ are the same as the number of days of her habit, she must consider those days to be ḥayḍ and the rest istiḥāḍah. If the days on which the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ are more than the days of her habit, then only the same number of days as her habit is ḥayḍ and the rest is istiḥāḍah. And if the days on which the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ are less than the days of her habit, she must consider those days with a few more days that together total the duration of her habit to be ḥayḍ and the rest istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 483. A muḍṭaribah is a woman who experiences bleeding on two consecutive months but there is a difference in the time and duration of her bleeding. If a muḍṭaribah experiences bleeding for more than ten days and all the blood is the same – i.e. all of it either has the attributes of ḥayḍ or the attributes of istiḥāḍah – then based on obligatory precaution, the rules that apply to her are the same as those that apply to a woman with a habit of time who experiences bleeding at a time other than that of her habit, and who cannot distinguish ḥayḍ from istiḥāḍah by the attributes of the bleeding and so must consider the habit of some of her close relatives to be her habit of ḥayḍ. And in case this is not possible, she must choose a number of days between three and ten and consider that to be her ḥayḍ, as per the explanation mentioned in Rulings 479 and 481.

Ruling 484. If a muḍṭaribah experiences bleeding for more than ten days, and the blood on some of those days has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on other days the attributes of istiḥāḍah, she must act according to the instructions mentioned at the beginning of Ruling 479.

Ruling 485. A mubtadiʾah is a woman who experiences bleeding for the first time. If a woman experiences bleeding for more than ten days and all the blood is the same, she must consider the duration of the habit of one of her close relatives to be the number of days of her ḥayḍ and the rest to be istiḥāḍah, provided that she fulfils the two conditions mentioned in Ruling 479. And if this is not possible, she must choose a number of days between three and ten and consider that to be the duration of her ḥayḍ, according to the instructions explained in Ruling 481.

Ruling 486. If a mubtadiʾah experiences bleeding for more than ten days, and on some of the days the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on others the attributes of istiḥāḍah, in the event that the bleeding with the attributes of ḥayḍ does not last for less than three days or more than ten, it is all ḥayḍ. However, if she experiences bleeding again before the passing of ten days from the time she experienced bleeding with the attributes of ḥayḍ, and this bleeding also has the attributes of ḥayḍ – for example, the bleeding is black for five days, yellow for nine days, and then it is black again for five days – then in this case, she must consider the first bleeding to be ḥayḍ and the other two bleedings to be istiḥāḍah, as is the case with a muḍṭaribah.

Ruling 487. If a mubtadiʾah experiences bleeding for more than ten days, and on some of the days the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on others the attributes of istiḥāḍah, but the bleeding that has the attributes of ḥayḍ lasts for less than three days or more than ten, then in this case, she must act according to the instructions mentioned in Ruling 479.

Ruling 488. A nāsiyah is a woman who has forgotten the duration and/or time of her habit. If such a woman experiences bleeding for three days or more but less than ten, then all of it is ḥayḍ. However, if her bleeding lasts for more than ten days, then there are some scenarios to consider:

A similar rule must be observed by a woman with an incomplete habit of duration, i.e. a woman whose habit of duration fluctuates between two figures that are more than three days and less than ten. For example, a woman who experiences bleeding for either six or seven days every month cannot consider her ḥayḍ to be less than six days or more than seven days by means of the attributes of ḥayḍ, or by the habit of her close relatives, or by choosing a number in case she experiences bleeding for more than ten days.

Kinds of blood seen by women » Miscellaneous rulings on ḥayḍ →
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**a woman with a habit of time and duration: this is a woman who on two consecutive months starts her period at a fixed time, and the number of days on which she has her period is the same in each of the two months. For example, in two consecutive months, she experiences bleeding from the first of the month until the seventh;**

1.1.

**2.**a woman with a habit of time: this is a woman who on two consecutive months starts her period at a fixed time but the number of days on which she has her period is not the same in each of the two months. For example, in two consecutive months, she experiences bleeding on the first of the month but in the first month her bleeding stops on the seventh day and in the second month it stops on the eighth day;**3.**a woman with a habit of duration: this is a woman who has her period for the same number of days on two consecutive months but the time when her bleeding starts in each of the two months is not the same. For example, in the first month she experiences bleeding from the fifth to the tenth of the month and in the second month from the twelfth to the seventeenth;**4.**a woman with a disordered habit (muḍṭaribah): this is a woman who, for several months, experiences a period but does not have a fixed habit with regard to this [neither of time nor of duration], or her habit has been disturbed and she has not yet formed a new habit;**5.**a menarcheal woman (mubtadiʾah): this is a woman who experiences bleeding for the first time;**6.**a forgetful woman (nāsiyah): this is a woman who has forgotten the habit of her period.Specific rules apply to each of these categories, which will be discussed in the following rulings.

**A woman with a habit of time and duration**

1.1.

Ruling 469. Women who have a habit of time and duration are of two types:

**a woman who on two consecutive months has her period at a fixed time, and her period also stops at a fixed time. For example, on two consecutive months she experiences bleeding on the first day of the month and it stops on the seventh. Therefore, her habit of ḥayḍ is from the first of the month to the seventh;**

1.1.

**2.**a woman who on two consecutive months has her period at a fixed time, and after she experiences bleeding for three or more days, it stops for one or more days, and then she experiences bleeding again; and the total number of days on which she experiences bleeding plus the days on which it stops in between do not exceed ten; and in both months, all the days on which she experiences bleeding and all the days on which it stops in between are the same. In such a case, her habit is the number of days on which she experienced bleeding without the addition of the number of days on which it stopped. Therefore, it is necessary that the days on which she experiences bleeding and the number of days on which it stops in between in both months are the same. For example, if in both months she experiences bleeding from the first day to the third, and then it stops for three days, and then she experiences bleeding for another three days, her habit is six separated days. Furthermore, for the three days in between on which her period stops, she must, based on obligatory precaution, refrain from doing the things that are unlawful for a ḥāʾiḍ and do the things required of a mustaḥāḍah. And in the event that the days on which she experiences bleeding in the second month are more or less than in the first month, she has a habit of time and not of duration.Ruling 470. If a woman with a habit of time – irrespective of whether she also has a habit of duration or not – experiences bleeding during the time of her habit, or on one or more days earlier than the time of her habit such that it can be said that her habit has moved forward, then even if the bleeding does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ, she must act according to the rules that were mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ. In the event that afterwards, she realises that it was not ḥayḍ – for example, her bleeding stops in less than three days – she must make up the ritual acts of worship that she did not perform [when she considered her bleeding to be ḥayḍ].

Ruling 471. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding on all the days of her habit and on a few days before and after her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all of those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. If the number of days exceed ten, then only the bleeding during her habit is ḥayḍ and the bleeding before and after that is istiḥāḍah, and she must make up the ritual acts of worship that she did not perform before and after her habit.

If a woman experiences bleeding on all the days of her habit and on a few days before her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all of those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. If it exceeds ten days, then only the bleeding on the days of her habit is considered to be ḥayḍ – even if the bleeding does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ and the days before her habit had the attributes of ḥayḍ – and the bleeding before her habit is considered to be istiḥāḍah. And in the event that on those days she did not perform ritual acts of worship, she must make them up.

If a woman experiences bleeding on all the days of her habit and on a few days after her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all of those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. And if the total is more than ten days, then only the bleeding on the days of her habit is considered to be ḥayḍ and the rest is considered to be istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 472. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding on some of the days of her habit and on a few days before her habit, and if the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all those days is considered to be ḥayḍ. If the bleeding exceeds ten days, then the bleeding on the days of her habit plus the few days before that – which total the number of days of her habit – is ḥayḍ, and the bleeding on the first few days is considered to be istiḥāḍah. If she experiences bleeding on some days of her habit and on a few days after her habit, and the total number of days do not exceed ten, then the bleeding on all the days is ḥayḍ. And if it exceeds ten days, then the bleeding on the days of her habit plus a few days after that – which total the number of days of her habit – is ḥayḍ, and the bleeding on the remaining days is considered to be istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 473. If a woman with a habit experiences bleeding for three or more days and after that her bleeding stops, and if she then experiences bleeding again and the gap between the two bleedings is less than ten days, and if all the days on which she experiences bleeding plus the days on which her bleeding stops total more than ten – for example, she experiences bleeding for five days, then her bleeding stops for five days, and then she experiences bleeding again for five days – in such a case, there are a few scenarios to consider:

**all or some of the woman’s first bleeding was on the days of her habit and her second bleeding was not on the days of her habit; in this case, she must consider all of her first bleeding to be ḥayḍ and her second bleeding to be istiḥāḍah. However, if her second bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ, she must add together the number of days of her first bleeding and the number of days on which her bleeding stopped after her first bleeding; then, to that figure she must add a number of days from her second bleeding such that the total number of days do not exceed ten. Having done this, she must consider her first bleeding and the bleeding on the days she added from her second bleeding to be ḥayḍ and the rest to be istiḥāḍah. For example, if she experiences bleeding for three days, then her bleeding stops for three days, and then she experiences bleeding again for five days and her second bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ, the first three days plus four days from her second bleeding is ḥayḍ. And for the days in between when her bleeding stops, she must, based on obligatory precaution, perform the obligatory acts that are required of a non-ḥāʾiḍ and refrain from doing the things that are unlawful for a ḥāʾiḍ;**

1.1.

**2.**the woman’s first bleeding is not on the days of her habit, and all or some of her second bleeding is on the days of her habit. In this case, she must consider all of her second bleeding to be ḥayḍ and her first bleeding to be istiḥāḍah;**3.**some of the woman’s first and second bleeding is on the days of her habit, and her first bleeding that was on the days of her habit lasts for not less than three days, and the number of days on which her bleeding stops in between and some of the days of her second bleeding that was also on the days of her habit does not exceed ten. In this case, both bleedings are ḥayḍ. The obligatory precaution is that on the days that her bleeding stops in between, she must do the things that are obligatory on a non-ḥāʾiḍ and refrain from doing the things that are unlawful for a ḥāʾiḍ. The days of the second bleeding after the days of her habit are considered to be istiḥāḍah. As for the amount of the first bleeding that she experiences before the days of her habit, in the event that it can commonly be said that her habit has moved forward, it is ruled as ḥayḍ unless considering it as ḥayḍ results in some or all the days of her second bleeding that was also on the days of her habit to exceed ten days, in which case it is ruled as istiḥāḍah. For example, if a woman’s habit is from the third of the month to the tenth, and she experiences bleeding from the first to the sixth in one month, and then her bleeding stops on two days, and then she experiences bleeding again until the fifteenth, then the bleeding that she experiences from the first to the tenth is ḥayḍ, and the bleeding that she experiences from the eleventh to the fifteenth is istiḥāḍah;**4.**the woman experiences some of her first and second bleeding on the days of her habit but the part of her first bleeding that she experiences on the days of her habit is less than three days. In this case, she must consider the last three days of her first bleeding to be ḥayḍ. Similarly, her second bleeding – which together with the first three days and the days on which her bleeding stops in between total ten days – must also be considered to be ḥayḍ, and whatever is more than that is istiḥāḍah. If the number of days on which her bleeding stops is seven, all of her second bleeding is istiḥāḍah. In some cases, she must consider all of her first bleeding to be ḥayḍ, and this is when two conditions are fulfilled:a. all of her first bleeding has moved ahead to such an extent that her habit can be said to have moved forward;

b. if all of her first bleeding were to be considered ḥayḍ, the number of days of her second bleeding that she experienced on the days of her habit would not exceed ten. For example, if the habit of a woman was from the third of the month to the tenth, and she now experiences bleeding from the first of the month until the end of the fourth day, then her bleeding stops for two days, and then she experiences bleeding again until the fifteenth, in such a case, all of her first bleeding is ḥayḍ. Similarly, the second bleeding until the end of the tenth day is ḥayḍ.

Ruling 474. If a woman with a habit of time and duration does not experience bleeding on the days of her habit, and at another time she experiences bleeding for the same number of days as her ḥayḍ, she must consider it to be ḥayḍ irrespective of whether she experienced it before the time of her habit or after it.

Ruling 475. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding on the days of her habit for three days or more, and the number of days are more or less than the days of her habit, and if after her bleeding stops she experiences bleeding again on the same number of days as her habit, then in such a case, there are a few scenarios to consider:

**the total number of days of the two bleedings plus the number of days when her bleeding stops in between does not exceed ten. In this case, the two bleedings together are considered to be one ḥayḍ;**

1.1.

**2.**the number of days that her bleeding stops in between the two bleedings exceeds ten. In this case, each of the two bleedings is considered to be a separate ḥayḍ;**3.**the number of days that her bleeding stops in between the two bleedings is less than ten, and the total of the two bleedings plus the days on which her bleeding stops in between is more than ten. In this case, the first bleeding must be considered to be ḥayḍ and the second bleeding istiḥāḍah.Ruling 476. If a woman with a habit of time and duration experiences bleeding for more than ten days, the bleeding that she experiences on the days of her habit – even if it does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ – is ḥayḍ; and the bleeding that she experiences after the days of her habit – even if it has the attributes of ḥayḍ – is istiḥāḍah. For example, if a woman whose habit is from the first of the month to the seventh experiences bleeding from the first of the month to the twelfth, the first seven days are ḥayḍ and the next five days are istiḥāḍah.

**A woman with a habit of time**

2.2.

Ruling 477. Women who have a habit of time and whose habit has a fixed start date are of two types:

**a woman who on two consecutive months has her period at a fixed time and whose period stops after a few days but the number of days in each month is not the same. For example, on two consecutive months she experiences bleeding on the first of the month but in the first month the bleeding stops on the seventh, and in the second month the bleeding stops on the eighth. This woman must consider the first of the month to be the first day of her habit of ḥayḍ;**

1.1.

**2.**a woman who on two consecutive months has her period at a fixed time for three or more days, then her period stops, and then she experiences bleeding again, and all the days on which she experiences bleeding plus the days in between on which her bleeding stops do not exceed ten; but in the second month, this figure is more or less than the first month. For example, in the first month it is eight days and in the second month nine days but in both months she experiences bleeding from the first of the month. Such a woman must also consider the first of the month to be the first day of her habit of ḥayḍ.Ruling 478. If a woman with a habit of time experiences bleeding on the days of her habit, or on two or three days before her habit, she must act according to the rules mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ as per the details in Ruling 470. In cases other than these two – for example, when a woman experiences bleeding so much in advance of her habit that it could not be said her habit has moved forward, rather, it would be said that she has experienced bleeding outside the days of her habit, or she experiences bleeding after the days of her habit then, in the event that the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ, she must act according to the rules mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ. Similarly, if it does not have the attributes of ḥayḍ but she knows that the bleeding will continue for three days [she must act according to the rules mentioned for a ḥāʾiḍ]. However, if she does not know whether or not it will continue for three days, the obligatory precaution is that she must do the things that are obligatory on a mustaḥāḍah and refrain from doing the things that are unlawful for a ḥāʾiḍ.

Ruling 479. If a woman with a habit of time experiences bleeding on the days of her habit and the number of days that her bleeding lasts for is more than ten, and if on some of the days her bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on some other days it does not, and if the number of days that her bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ is not less than three nor more than ten, then in such a case, she must consider her bleeding on those days when it has the attributes of ḥayḍ to be ḥayḍ and the rest to be istiḥāḍah. If this type of bleeding is repeated – for example, four days with the attributes of ḥayḍ, followed by four days with the attributes of istiḥāḍah, and then followed by four days with the attributes of ḥayḍ again – she must consider only the first four days to be ḥayḍ and all the rest to be istiḥāḍah. If the bleeding with the attributes of ḥayḍ lasts for less than three days, she must consider it to be ḥayḍ and determine the number of days of it in one of two ways: either by referring to her close relatives, or by selecting the number of days. If it is more than ten days, she must consider part of it to be ḥayḍ by one of these two ways. And if a woman cannot distinguish the amount of ḥayḍ by means of its attributes – i.e. she finds that all the blood has the same attributes, or the blood that has the attributes of ḥayḍ lasts for more than ten days or less than three days – then she must consider it to be ḥayḍ according to the number of days of the habit of some of her close relatives, whether they be her paternal or maternal relatives, alive or dead. However, in this case, two conditions must be fulfilled:

**the woman does not know that her close relative’s habit is different to the duration of her ḥayḍ. For example, she is youthful and healthy and the other woman is approaching the age of menopause, when usually the duration of a woman’s habit is shorter. The same applies if the situation is the other way round or the woman has an incomplete habit, the meaning and rules of which will be mentioned in Ruling 488.**

1.1.

**2.**the woman does not know that the habit of the other woman differs from the habit of her other close relatives who meet the first condition. However, there is no problem if the difference is very little such that it cannot really be counted. The same rule applies to a woman who has a habit of time and does not experience bleeding at all on the days of her habit but experiences bleeding at other times which lasts for more than ten days, and she cannot distinguish the duration of ḥayḍ by means of its attributes.Ruling 480. A woman with a habit of time cannot consider her bleeding to be ḥayḍ at times other than the time of her habit. Therefore, if the start of her habit is known – for example, she used to experience bleeding every month from the first of the month, and sometimes her bleeding would stop on the fifth day and at other times on the sixth – then, in the event that in one month she experiences bleeding for twelve days and she cannot determine her duration by means of the attributes of ḥayḍ, she must consider the first of the month to be the beginning of ḥayḍ. For the duration, she must refer to what was said in the previous ruling; and if the middle or end of her habit is known, in the event that her bleeding exceeds ten days, she must consider the duration to be such that the end or middle of it is in accordance with the time of her habit.

Ruling 481. A woman with a habit of time who experiences bleeding for more than ten days and cannot determine it according to what was said in Ruling 479 can choose any number of days from three to ten that she feels is appropriate for the duration of her ḥayḍ; and it is better that she considers it to be seven days, if she feels it appropriate for herself. Of course, the number of days that she considers to be ḥayḍ must be in accordance with the time of her habit, as mentioned in the previous ruling.

**A woman with a habit of duration**

3.3.

[Women with a habit of duration are of two types:]

**a woman whose duration of ḥayḍ is the same on two consecutive months but the time of her bleeding is not the same in each. In this case, her habit is considered to be however many days she experiences bleeding. For example, if in the first month she experiences bleeding from the first of the month to the fifth, and in the second month from the eleventh to the fifteenth, her habit will be five days.**

1.1.

**2.**a woman who on two consecutive months experiences bleeding for three days or more, then her period stops for one or more days, and then she experiences bleeding again, and the time of bleeding in the first month differs from that of the second, such that all the days on which she experiences bleeding plus all the days on which her period stops in between do not exceed ten, and the number of days on which she experiences bleeding are the same. In this case, all the days on which she experiences bleeding is her habit of ḥayḍ, and on the days that her bleeding stops, she must, as a precautionary measure, do the things that are obligatory on a non-ḥāʾiḍ and refrain from doing the things that are unlawful for a ḥāʾiḍ. For example, if in the first month she experiences bleeding from the first to the third of the month, then her bleeding stops for two days, and then she experiences bleeding again for three days, and in the second month she experiences bleeding from the eleventh to the thirteenth, then her bleeding stops for two days, and then she experiences bleeding for three days, in such a case, her habit will be six days. However, if in one month, for example, she experiences bleeding for eight days and in the second month for four days, then her bleeding stops, and then she experiences bleeding again, and the total number of the days on which she experiences bleeding plus the days on which her bleeding stops in between is eight, in this case, the woman does not have a habit of duration; rather, she is considered to be a muḍṭaribah (i.e. a woman with a disordered duration), the ruling for which will come later.Ruling 482. If a woman with a habit of duration experiences bleeding for more or less than the number of days of her habit and it does not exceed ten days, she must consider it all to be ḥayḍ. If it exceeds ten days, in the event that all the blood is similar, the days from the start of bleeding until the number of days of her habit is considered to be ḥayḍ and the rest is considered to be istiḥāḍah. If all the bleeding is not the same, rather, on some days it has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on others the attributes of istiḥāḍah, and if the number of days on which it has the attributes of ḥayḍ are the same as the number of days of her habit, she must consider those days to be ḥayḍ and the rest istiḥāḍah. If the days on which the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ are more than the days of her habit, then only the same number of days as her habit is ḥayḍ and the rest is istiḥāḍah. And if the days on which the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ are less than the days of her habit, she must consider those days with a few more days that together total the duration of her habit to be ḥayḍ and the rest istiḥāḍah.

**A woman with a disordered habit (muḍṭaribah)**

4.4.

Ruling 483. A muḍṭaribah is a woman who experiences bleeding on two consecutive months but there is a difference in the time and duration of her bleeding. If a muḍṭaribah experiences bleeding for more than ten days and all the blood is the same – i.e. all of it either has the attributes of ḥayḍ or the attributes of istiḥāḍah – then based on obligatory precaution, the rules that apply to her are the same as those that apply to a woman with a habit of time who experiences bleeding at a time other than that of her habit, and who cannot distinguish ḥayḍ from istiḥāḍah by the attributes of the bleeding and so must consider the habit of some of her close relatives to be her habit of ḥayḍ. And in case this is not possible, she must choose a number of days between three and ten and consider that to be her ḥayḍ, as per the explanation mentioned in Rulings 479 and 481.

Ruling 484. If a muḍṭaribah experiences bleeding for more than ten days, and the blood on some of those days has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on other days the attributes of istiḥāḍah, she must act according to the instructions mentioned at the beginning of Ruling 479.

**A menarcheal woman (mubtadiʾah)**

5.5.

Ruling 485. A mubtadiʾah is a woman who experiences bleeding for the first time. If a woman experiences bleeding for more than ten days and all the blood is the same, she must consider the duration of the habit of one of her close relatives to be the number of days of her ḥayḍ and the rest to be istiḥāḍah, provided that she fulfils the two conditions mentioned in Ruling 479. And if this is not possible, she must choose a number of days between three and ten and consider that to be the duration of her ḥayḍ, according to the instructions explained in Ruling 481.

Ruling 486. If a mubtadiʾah experiences bleeding for more than ten days, and on some of the days the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on others the attributes of istiḥāḍah, in the event that the bleeding with the attributes of ḥayḍ does not last for less than three days or more than ten, it is all ḥayḍ. However, if she experiences bleeding again before the passing of ten days from the time she experienced bleeding with the attributes of ḥayḍ, and this bleeding also has the attributes of ḥayḍ – for example, the bleeding is black for five days, yellow for nine days, and then it is black again for five days – then in this case, she must consider the first bleeding to be ḥayḍ and the other two bleedings to be istiḥāḍah, as is the case with a muḍṭaribah.

Ruling 487. If a mubtadiʾah experiences bleeding for more than ten days, and on some of the days the bleeding has the attributes of ḥayḍ and on others the attributes of istiḥāḍah, but the bleeding that has the attributes of ḥayḍ lasts for less than three days or more than ten, then in this case, she must act according to the instructions mentioned in Ruling 479.

**A forgetful woman (nāsiyah)**

6.6.

Ruling 488. A nāsiyah is a woman who has forgotten the duration and/or time of her habit. If such a woman experiences bleeding for three days or more but less than ten, then all of it is ḥayḍ. However, if her bleeding lasts for more than ten days, then there are some scenarios to consider:

**the woman had a habit of time or duration or both but she has completely forgotten it, such that she cannot remember its time or duration, even in general. For this type of woman, the rules of a mubtadiʾah that were mentioned earlier apply;**

1.1.

**2.**the woman had a habit of time and may or may not also have had a habit of duration, and she remembers something in general about the time of her habit. For example, she knows that a particular day is part of her habit, or that her habit is in the first half of the month. For this type of woman, the rules of a mubtadiʾah apply as well; however, she must not consider ḥayḍ to be at a time that is definitely contrary to her habit. For example, if she knows that the seventeenth day of the month is part of her habit or that her habit is in the second half of the month, and if she experiences bleeding from the first to the twentieth of the month, then she cannot consider her habit to be in the first ten days of the month even if it has the attributes of ḥayḍ and the bleeding in the second ten days has the attributes of istiḥāḍah;**3.**the woman had a habit of duration but she has forgotten the duration of her habit. For this type of woman, the rules of a mubtadiʾah also apply; however, she must not knowingly underestimate the duration of her ḥayḍ [for example, if she knows that the number of days of her habit is at least seven days, she cannot consider her ḥayḍ to be less than seven days]. Similarly, she cannot knowingly overestimate the duration of her ḥayḍ to be more than her habit.A similar rule must be observed by a woman with an incomplete habit of duration, i.e. a woman whose habit of duration fluctuates between two figures that are more than three days and less than ten. For example, a woman who experiences bleeding for either six or seven days every month cannot consider her ḥayḍ to be less than six days or more than seven days by means of the attributes of ḥayḍ, or by the habit of her close relatives, or by choosing a number in case she experiences bleeding for more than ten days.