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Rules related to a dying person » Laws of shrouding (takfīn) a corpse → ← Ghusl for touching a dead body » The obligation to give ghusl, shroud (takfīn), pray over, camphorate (taḥnīṭ), and bury (dafn)

Rules related to a dying person » Method of performing the ghusl given to a corpse (mayyit)

Ruling 538. It is obligatory to give a corpse three ghusls in the following order:

1.
a ghusl with water that has been mixed with lote tree (sidr) leaves;
2. a ghusl with water that has been mixed with camphor (kāfūr);
3. a ghusl with ordinary water.

Ruling 539. The amount of sidr leaves and camphor in the water must not be so great that they turn the water into mixed (muḍāf) water, and neither must the amount be so little that it cannot be said that sidr leaves and camphor have been mixed in the water.

Ruling 540. If the necessary amount of sidr leaves and camphor cannot be found, then based on recommended precaution the amount that one has access to should be mixed in the water.

Ruling 541. If someone dies in the state of iḥrām, he must not be given ghusl with camphor water; instead, he must be given ghusl with ordinary water, unless he was in the state of iḥrām for ḥajj al-tamattuʿ(1) and he had completed the ṭawāf,(2) its prayer, and saʿy;(3) or, he was in the state of iḥrām for ḥajj al-qirān or ḥajj al-ifrād(4) and he had performed ḥalq;(5) in these two cases, he must be given ghusl with camphor water.

Ruling 542. If sidr leaves and camphor, or one of them, cannot be found, or, if using them is not permitted – for example, they are usurped – then based on obligatory precaution a person must perform one tayammum on the deceased; and in place of whichever one was not possible [i.e. in place of the sidr leaves and/or camphor that could not be found or its use was not permitted], ghusl must be given with ordinary water.

Ruling 543. One who gives ghusl to a corpse must be sane, Muslim, and, based on obligatory precaution, a Twelver Shia; furthermore, he must know the rulings of ghusl. If a mumayyiz child performs ghusl correctly, it is acceptable [for him to perform the ghusl]. And in the event that the deceased is not a Twelver Shia and someone from the deceased’s religious denomination (madhhab) gives him ghusl – albeit according to the laws of his denomination – the responsibility is lifted from Twelver believers unless a Twelver believer is the guardian of the deceased, in which case the responsibility is not lifted from him.

Ruling 544. One who gives ghusl to a corpse must have the intention of attaining proximity to Allah, and it is sufficient if he has an intention to follow the command of Allah.

Ruling 545. Giving ghusl to a Muslim child is obligatory even if the child is of illegitimate birth. Giving ghusl, shrouding, and burying a disbeliever and his offspring is not obligatory; however, if the child of a disbeliever is mumayyiz and expresses belief in Islam, he is a believer. As for someone who was insane from childhood and reached the age of legal responsibility while he was insane, in the event that his father or his mother is Muslim, he must be given ghusl.

Ruling 546. A miscarried child of four months or more must be given ghusl. In fact, based on obligatory precaution, even a miscarried child of less than four months whose body formation is complete must be given ghusl. In cases other than these two, based on obligatory precaution, one must wrap the child in cloth and bury it without giving it ghusl.

Ruling 547. A man cannot give ghusl to a woman who is not his maḥram. Similarly, a woman cannot give ghusl to man who is not her maḥram. A husband and wife can give ghusl to one another.

Ruling 548. A man can give ghusl to a young girl who cannot discern between right and wrong. And a woman can give ghusl to a young boy who cannot discern between right and wrong.

Ruling 549. Those who are maḥram can give ghusl to one another, whether they are maḥram by being biological/blood relatives – for example, a mother and a sister – or by way of breastfeeding, or by marriage. Except for the private parts of a corpse, it is not necessary [to cover it and] give it ghusl from under the cover, although it is better to do so. However, based on obligatory precaution, a man can only give ghusl to a maḥram woman when he cannot find a woman who can give ghusl to her, and vice versa [i.e. a woman can only give ghusl to a maḥram man when she cannot find a man who can give ghusl to him].

Ruling 550. If a corpse and the person giving ghusl to it are both male, or if both are female, it is permitted for the corpse to be naked, except for the private parts. However, it is better to give it ghusl from under a cover.

Ruling 551. Looking at the private parts of a corpse is unlawful, except in the case of a husband and wife; if the person who is giving ghusl looks [at the private parts], he commits a sin but the ghusl does not become invalid.

Ruling 552. If there is an intrinsic impurity on any part of a corpse, it must be removed before ghusl is given to that part; and it is better to remove impurities from the entire body before starting the ghusl.

Ruling 553. [The method of performing] the ghusl given to a corpse is the same as that of the ghusl for janābah; and the obligatory precaution is that one must not give a corpse immersive ghusl if it is possible to give it sequential ghusl; and if sequential ghusl is given, the right side must be washed before the left side.

Ruling 554. If someone dies while in the state of ḥayḍ or janābah, it is not necessary to give that person the ghusl for ḥayḍ or the ghusl for janābah; rather, the ghusl given to a corpse will suffice.

Ruling 555. Based on obligatory precaution, it is unlawful to take a fee for giving ghusl to a corpse; if someone gives ghusl to a corpse with the intention of earning a fee such that it conflicts with him having an intention of attaining proximity to Allah, the ghusl is invalid. However, it is not unlawful to take a fee for preliminary matters relating to giving ghusl [such as getting the three types of water ready].

Ruling 556. Giving jabīrah ghusl to a corpse has not been sanctioned in Islamic law (i.e. it is not mashrūʿ). Furthermore, if one does not find water or if there is an obstacle to using water, he must perform one tayammum on the corpse instead of giving it ghusl; and the recommended precaution is to perform three tayammums on it.

Ruling 557. Someone who performs tayammum on a corpse must strike his own palms on the earth, and then wipe them on the face and on the back of the hands of the corpse; and if it is possible, the recommended precaution is to perform tayammum using the hands of the corpse.

(1) Ḥajj al-tamattuʿ is the pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims who reside further than 88 kilometres from Mecca.

(2) Ṭawāf refers to the circumambulation of the Kaʿbah.

(3) Saʿy refers to the hajj and ʿumrah ritual of traversing to and from the mountains of Ṣafā and Marwah.

(4) These are two types of pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims who reside within 88 kilometres of Mecca.

(5) Ḥalq is the shaving of the head performed by men as part of the hajj rituals.
Rules related to a dying person » Laws of shrouding (takfīn) a corpse → ← Ghusl for touching a dead body » The obligation to give ghusl, shroud (takfīn), pray over, camphorate (taḥnīṭ), and bury (dafn)
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