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Tayammum » Method of performing tayammum in place of wuḍūʾ or ghusl → ← Rules related to a dying person » Dry ablution (tayammum)

Mustahab Ghusls » Things with which performing tayammum is valid (ṣaḥīḥ)

Ruling 673. Performing tayammum with soil, pebbles, a clod of earth, and stone is valid. However, the recommended precaution is that if it is possible to perform tayammum with soil, one should not perform it with any other thing; and if soil is not available, [the recommended precaution is to perform tayammum] with fine sand that is very soft, such that it can be called ‘soil’; and if that is not possible, with a clod of earth; and if that is not possible, with pebbles; and in the event that pebbles and a clod of earth are not available, one must perform tayammum with a stone.

Ruling 674. Tayammum performed with gypsum or limestone is valid. Similarly, tayammum performed with dust that gathers on carpets, clothing, and similar things is also valid provided that its quantity is such that it can commonly be considered to be very fine soil, although the recommended precaution is that if alternatives are available, one should not perform tayammum with dust. Similarly, based on recommended precaution, if alternatives are available, one should not perform tayammum with gypsum and limestone that have been baked, nor with brick that has been baked, nor with mineral stones such as agate (ʿaqīq).

Ruling 675. If a person cannot find soil, pebbles, a clod of earth, or stone, he must perform tayammum with mud; and if one cannot find any mud, he must perform tayammum on top of a carpet, clothing, or similar thing that has gathered dust or on which dust has settled but not to the extent that it can commonly be considered to be soil. If none of these can be found, the recommended precaution is that one should perform prayers without performing tayammum; however, it is obligatory on him to make them up afterwards.

Ruling 676. If a person can gather soil by shaking a carpet and similar things, then performing tayammum with something that is merely dusty is invalid. Similarly, if one can dry some mud and procure soil from it, then performing tayammum with mud is invalid.

Ruling 677. If someone does not have water but does have snow or ice, in the event that it is possible for him to do so, he must melt it and perform wuḍūʾ or ghusl with it; and if it is not possible and he does not have anything with which tayammum can be validly performed, it is necessary for him to make up the prayer after its time. Furthermore, it is better that he wets with snow or ice those parts of the body on which wuḍūʾ or ghusl is performed, and in the case of wuḍūʾ, he should wipe his head and feet with the wetness on his hands; and if this is not possible, he should perform tayammum with snow or ice and perform the prayer within its time. In both cases, it is necessary for him to make up the prayer afterwards.

Ruling 678. If something like straw – with which performing tayammum is invalid – becomes mixed with soil or pebbles, one cannot perform tayammum with it. However, if the quantity of that thing [such as straw] is so little that it is considered to have disappeared in the soil or pebbles, then performing tayammum with that soil or pebbles is valid.

Ruling 679. If a person does not have anything with which to perform tayammum, in the event that it is possible, he must procure it by purchasing it and suchlike.

Ruling 680. Performing tayammum with a mud wall is valid. And the recommended precaution is that if there is dry earth or soil, one should not perform tayammum with damp earth or soil.

Ruling 681. The thing with which a person performs tayammum must be pure (ṭāhir); and based on obligatory precaution it must also be commonly considered to be clean, meaning that it must not be tainted with anything that causes disgust. If one does not have a pure thing with which tayammum can be validly performed, then performing prayers at that time is not obligatory on him; however, he must make up that prayer; and it is better that he also performs the prayer within its time except if the situation has reached the point whereby he must perform tayammum with a dusty carpet or a similar thing.(1) And if it is impure, the obligatory precaution is that he must perform tayammum with it, perform the prayer, and afterwards make up the prayer.

Ruling 682. If someone is certain that performing tayammum with a particular thing is valid and he does so, and afterwards he realises that performing tayammum with that thing is invalid, he must perform the prayers he had performed with that tayammum again.

Ruling 683. The thing with which one performs tayammum must not be usurped; therefore, if one performs tayammum with usurped soil, his tayammum is invalid.

Ruling 684. Tayammum performed in a usurped area is not invalid; therefore, if a person strikes his hands on soil belonging to him, and then enters the property of another person without his consent and wipes his hands on his forehead, his tayammum is valid even though he will have committed a sin.

Ruling 685. If a person forgetfully or neglectfully performs tayammum with a usurped thing, his tayammum is valid. However, if that thing has been usurped by him and he forgets that he has usurped it, then considering his tayammum as being valid is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, his tayammum must not be considered to be valid].

Ruling 686. If a person is imprisoned in a usurped place and both the water and the soil of that place are usurped, he must perform prayers with tayammum.

Ruling 687. Based on obligatory precaution, the thing with which one performs tayammum must have dust on it that will stay on the palms; and after striking one’s hands on it, he must not shake his hands vigorously causing all the dust to fall off.

Ruling 688. It is disapproved to perform tayammum with the earth of a pit, and with the soil of a road, and with the ground of a salt marsh on which salt has not settled; and if salt has settled on it, the tayammum is invalid.

(1) See Ruling 675.
Tayammum » Method of performing tayammum in place of wuḍūʾ or ghusl → ← Rules related to a dying person » Dry ablution (tayammum)
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