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Ruling 1872. It becomes obligatory for a person to give zakat on the ten things mentioned above when they reach the taxable limit (niṣāb), which will be mentioned later, and they are his personal property, and he is a free person.

Ruling 1873. If someone owns cows, sheep, camels, gold, or silver for eleven months, then even though zakat becomes obligatory for him at the beginning of the twelfth month, he must consider the next year as beginning after the end of the twelfth month.

Ruling 1874. Zakat being obligatory on gold, silver, and business goods is conditional upon its owner being sane (ʿāqil) and of the age of legal responsibility (bāligh) throughout the year. However, in the case of wheat, barley, dates, raisins, camels, cows, and sheep, it is not a condition that the owner be sane and bāligh.

Ruling 1875. Zakat is liable on wheat and barley when they can be called ‘wheat’ and ‘barley’; zakat on raisins is obligatory when they are grapes; and zakat is liable on dates when Arabs call them ‘tamr’ [dry dates]. However, the time for determining their niṣāb is when they are dry; the time for giving zakat on wheat and barley is when the grain is threshed and separated from the chaff; and the time for giving zakat on dates and raisins is when they are picked. Therefore, if from this time onwards one delays giving zakat without having a legitimate excuse (ʿudhr), and there are persons entitled (mustaḥiqqūn) to receive zakat, and the item perishes, then the owner is responsible (ḍāmin) for it.

Ruling 1876. For zakat to be liable on wheat, barley, raisins, and dates – as defined in the previous ruling – it is not a requirement that they be at the owner’s disposal. Therefore, if the goods are not with him or his agent (wakīl) – for example, they have been usurped – then it is obligatory for him to give the zakat that is liable on them whenever he gets them back.

Ruling 1877. If the owner of cows, sheep, camels, gold, and silver is intoxicated or unconscious for part of the year, zakat is not waived for him. The same applies if he is intoxicated or unconscious when zakat on wheat, barley, dates, and raisins becomes obligatory.

Ruling 1878. It is a condition for zakat to be liable on things other than wheat, barley, dates, and raisins, that the owner have disposal over them legally and actually. Therefore, if someone usurps them for a significant period during the year [and so he cannot actually have disposal over them], or if the owner is legally forbidden to have disposal over them, then there is no zakat to give.

Ruling 1879. If a person borrows gold or silver or any other thing on which it is obligatory to give zakat and it remains with him for a year, he must give zakat on it and the lender is not liable. However, if the lender gives zakat on it, the borrower is exempt from giving it.
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