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Mutahhirat » 2. Earth → ← Najis things » Things that purify an impure object (muṭahhirāt)

Mutahhirat » 1. Water

Ruling 143. Water makes an impure object pure provided that four conditions are met:

1.
the water must be unmixed; therefore, mixed water such as rose water and willow essence do not make an impure object pure;
2. the water must be pure;
3. the water must not turn into mixed water when an impure object is washed in it; and in cases where only one wash is required,(1) the water must not attain the smell, colour, or taste of the impurity. However, in other cases, there is no problem if the water changes; for example, if a person washes an object with kurr or qalīl water and it is necessary to wash that object twice,(2) then even if the water changes in the first wash and in the second wash he purifies the object with water that does not change, the object becomes pure;
4. after washing an impure object, small particles of the intrinsic impurity must not remain on the object. Purifying an impure object with qalīl water – i.e. water that is less than kurr – has other conditions, which will be mentioned later.

Ruling 144. The inside of an impure utensil must be washed three times with qalīl water. Similarly, [it must be washed three times] with kurr, flowing, or rainwater, based on obligatory precaution. A utensil out of which a dog drinks water or some other liquid must first be scrubbed with pure soil; then, that soil must be discarded and the utensil washed twice with qalīl, kurr, or rainwater. Similarly, a utensil that a dog has licked must be scrubbed with soil before it is washed; and if a dog’s saliva falls into a utensil or part of its body touches the utensil, then based on obligatory precaution the utensil must be scrubbed with soil and then washed three times with water.

Ruling 145. If the mouth of a utensil that a dog has licked is narrow, soil must be poured into it and the utensil must be shaken vigorously so that the soil reaches all parts of it; thereafter, it must be washed in the manner mentioned above.

Ruling 146. A utensil that a pig licks or drinks some liquid out of, or in which a field-mouse has died, must be washed seven times with qalīl, kurr, or flowing water, and it is not necessary to scrub it with soil.

Ruling 147. A utensil that has become impure with wine must be washed three times even with kurr water, flowing water, or suchlike. And the recommended precaution is that it should be washed seven times.

Ruling 148. If a pitcher that is made from impure clay, or a pitcher which impure water has permeated, is placed in kurr or flowing water, then wherever the water reaches becomes pure. If a person wants its inside to become pure as well, it must stay in kurr or flowing water for such a length of time that the water permeates all of it. Furthermore, if a utensil has some liquid that prevents water from reaching its inside, it must be dried and thereafter placed in kurr or flowing water.

Ruling 149. An impure utensil can be washed with qalīl water in two ways:

1.
by filling it three times with water and emptying it out each time;
2. by pouring some water in it three times and each time swirling the water around in a manner that it reaches all the impure parts and then emptying it out.

Ruling 150. If a large container like a cauldron or barrel becomes impure, in the event that it is filled and emptied three times, it becomes pure. The same applies if water is poured into it from above three times in a manner that it reaches all its sides and each time the water that collects at the bottom is emptied out; and the recommended precaution is that on the second and third time, the container that is used to empty out the water should be washed with water.

Ruling 151. If impure copper and the like is melted and washed with water, its exterior becomes pure.

Ruling 152. With regard to a tanūr(3) that has become impure with urine, if water is poured once into it from above in a manner that it reaches all its sides, it becomes pure; and the recommended precaution is that this should be done twice. However, in case it has become impure by something other than urine, then after removing the impurity, it is sufficient to pour water once into it as described. Furthermore, it is better to make an indentation at the bottom of it so that water collects there; then, the water should be emptied out and the indentation should be filled in with pure soil.

Ruling 153. If an impure object is immersed once in kurr or flowing water such that water reaches all its impure areas, it becomes pure. In the case of a rug, clothing, or a similar thing, it is not necessary to squeeze or wring it or to stamp on it. And in case a person’s body or clothing becomes impure with urine, then based on obligatory precaution, it is necessary to wash it twice with kurr water or the like; however, if flowing water is used, it becomes pure by washing it once.

Ruling 154. If a person wants to wash with qalīl water an object that has become impure with urine, in the event that water is poured over it once and separates from it and urine does not remain on the object, it becomes pure. However, with clothing and a person’s body, water must be poured over it twice in order for it to become pure. As for washing clothing, rugs, and similar things with qalīl water, in all cases, one must wring them until the remaining water comes out (and the meaning of ‘the remaining water’ is water that usually drips out by itself or by wringing at the time of washing and after washing).

Ruling 155. If an object becomes impure with the urine of a breastfeeding boy or a girl who has not started weaning, in the event that some water, however little, is poured over it once so that it reaches the whole of the impure area, it becomes pure. However, the recommended precaution is that water should be poured over it a second time. In the case of clothing, rugs, and similar things, wringing is not necessary.

Ruling 156. If an object becomes impure by something other than urine, in the event that the impurity is removed and qalīl water is poured over it once and separates from it, it becomes pure. However, clothing and similar things must be wrung so that the remaining water comes out.

Ruling 157. If a ḥaṣīr(4) that has been woven with thread becomes impure and is immersed in kurr or flowing water, then after the intrinsic impurity has been removed, it becomes pure. However, if a person wants to wash it with qalīl water, it must be squeezed in whatever way possible, even by stamping on it, so that the remaining water separates from it.

Ruling 158. If the exterior of wheat, rice, and suchlike becomes impure and it is immersed in kurr or flowing water, it becomes pure; and it is also possible to purify it with qalīl water. And if their interior becomes impure, in the event that kurr or flowing water reaches the interior, it becomes pure.

Ruling 159. If the exterior of soap becomes impure, it is possible to purify it; however, if its interior becomes impure, it is not possible to purify it. If a person doubts whether impure water has reached the soap’s interior or not, its interior is pure.

Ruling 160. If the exterior of rice, meat, and suchlike becomes impure, in the event that it is placed in a pure bowl or something similar, and water is poured over it once and emptied, it becomes pure. If it is placed in an impure utensil, this procedure must be carried out three times for the utensil to become pure. And if a person wants to place a cloth or something similar that needs to be squeezed in a utensil and to wash it with water, he must squeeze the object each time water is poured over it and tilt the utensil so that the remaining water that has gathered pours out.

Ruling 161. If impure clothing that has been dyed with indigo or something similar is immersed in kurr or flowing water, it becomes pure if the water reaches all parts of it before the water becomes mixed with the colour of the clothing. And if it is washed with qalīl water, in the event that at the time of wringing the mixed water does not come out, it becomes pure.

Ruling 162. If clothing is washed with kurr or flowing water and afterwards some sludge, for example, is found on it, in the event that one does not deem it probable for it to have prevented the water from reaching the clothing, the clothing is pure.

Ruling 163. If after washing clothing or something similar some mud or soap is seen on it, in the event that one does not deem it probable for it to have prevented the water from reaching the clothing, the clothing is pure. However, if impure water reaches the inside of the mud or soap, the outside of the mud or soap is pure and the inside is impure.

Ruling 164. An impure object does not become pure until the intrinsic impurity is removed from it; there is no problem, however, if the smell or colour of the impurity remains on it. Therefore, if blood is removed from clothing and the clothing is washed with water and the colour of blood remains on it, it is pure.

Ruling 165. If impurity on the body is removed by immersion in kurr or flowing water, the body becomes pure except if it has become impure with urine, in which case, based on obligatory precaution, it does not become pure by washing it once with kurr water. However, it is not necessary for one to come out of the water and then to go back in; rather, it will suffice if the person wipes the impure part under water with his hand such that the water separates from that part and then goes over it once again.

Ruling 166. With regard to impure bits of food that have remained in between the teeth, if water is gargled and it reaches all the bits of impure food, they become pure.

Ruling 167. If the hair on one’s head and face [becomes impure and] is washed with qalīl water, in case there is not a lot of hair, it is not necessary to apply pressure in order to take out the remaining water because a regular amount of water will come out on its own accord.

Ruling 168. If an area of the body or clothing is washed with qalīl water, both the impure area and the area around it where water usually reaches during washing become pure. Therefore, it is not necessary to wash those adjoining areas separately. The same applies if a pure object is placed by the side of an impure object and water is poured over both of them. For example, in order to wash one impure finger with water, if water is poured on all the fingers and impure water as well as pure water reaches all of them, then by the impure finger becoming pure, all the fingers become pure.

Ruling 169. Meat or fat that has become impure is washed with water just like any other object. The same applies if the body, clothing, or a utensil has a little fat on it that does not prevent water from reaching it.

Ruling 170. If a utensil or a body is impure and afterwards it becomes greasy such that water is prevented from reaching it, in the event that one wishes to wash the utensil or the body with water, he must first remove the grease so that water can reach it.

Ruling 171. Tap water that is connected to kurr is ruled as being kurr.

Ruling 172. If a person washes an object with water and he becomes certain that it has become pure, but afterwards he doubts whether he removed the intrinsic impurity from it or not, he must wash it again with water until he is certain that the intrinsic impurity has been removed.

Ruling 173. If ground that absorbs water – such as ground on which there is sand or pebbles – becomes impure, it can be purified with qalīl water.

Ruling 174. If ground that is paved with stone or brick, or hard ground that does not absorb water, becomes impure, it can be purified with qalīl water; however, one must pour water over it to the extent that it flows. And if the water that is poured over it does not disappear down holes in the ground but instead gathers somewhere, then in order to purify that place, the gathered water must be removed with a cloth or a utensil.

Ruling 175. If the exterior of rock salt and suchlike becomes impure, it can be purified with qalīl water.

Ruling 176. If impure melted sugar is turned into sugar cubes and placed in kurr or flowing water, it does not become pure.

(1) See, for example, Ruling 156.
(2) See, for example, Ruling 153.
(3) A tanūr is a fire-heated oven for baking bread.
(4) A ḥaṣīr is a mat that is made by plaiting or weaving straw, reed, or similar materials of plant origin.
Mutahhirat » 2. Earth → ← Najis things » Things that purify an impure object (muṭahhirāt)
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