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Mutahhirat » 3. The sun → ← Mutahhirat » 1. Water

Mutahhirat » 2. Earth

Ruling 177. Earth purifies the sole of one’s foot or shoe on four conditions:

1.
the earth is pure;
2. the earth is dry;
3. based on obligatory precaution, the impurity has come onto the sole of one’s foot or shoe from the earth;
4. an intrinsic impurity – such as blood and urine – or an object that has become impure – such as mud that has become impure and is on the sole of one’s foot or shoe – is removed by walking or by rubbing the foot on earth; and in the event that the intrinsic impurity had previously been removed, then based on obligatory precaution the sole of one’s foot or shoe does not become pure by walking or by rubbing the foot on earth. Furthermore, the earth must be of soil, stone, brick, or something similar; therefore, walking on a rug, ḥaṣīr, and on grass does not purify the impure sole of one’s foot or shoe.

Ruling 178. To consider the impure sole of one’s foot or shoe as having become pure after walking on asphalt and ground paved with wood is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, it must not be considered as having become pure].

Ruling 179. In order to purify the sole of one’s foot or shoe, it is better to walk a distance of fifteen cubits (dhirāʿs)(1) or more, even if the impurity is removed by walking less than fifteen cubits or by rubbing the sole of one’s foot or shoe on earth.

Ruling 180. It is not necessary for the impure sole of one’s foot or shoe to be wet; rather, even if it is dry it becomes pure by walking.

Ruling 181. After the impure sole of one’s foot or shoe has become pure by walking, the area on the sides of the sole that usually becomes dirty with mud also becomes pure.

Ruling 182. If the palms or knees of someone who moves around on his hands and knees become impure, then to consider them as having become pure as a result of him moving around on them is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, they must not be considered as having become pure]. The same applies to the bottom of a walking stick, the bottom of an artificial leg, the shoe of a quadruped animal, the wheel of a car or cart, and similar things.

Ruling 183. There is no problem if after walking, the smell, colour, or small particles of impurity that cannot be seen remain on the sole of one’s foot or shoe. However, the recommended precaution is that one should walk to the extent that this is also removed.

Ruling 184. The inside of a shoe does not become pure by walking. To consider the sole of socks as having become pure as a result of walking is problematic [i.e. based on obligatory precaution, it must not be considered as having become pure], unless the sole is made of leather and suchlike and walking on them is considered normal.

(1) The length from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger of the hand is known as one dhirāʿ, and it has been said that one dhirāʿ of people of average height is equivalent to approximately 46 centimetres. [Author]
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