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Kinds of blood seen by women » Menstruation (ḥayḍ) → ← Kinds of blood seen by women » Irregular blood discharge (istiḥāḍah)

Kinds of blood seen by women » Laws of istiḥāḍah

Ruling 392. For slight istiḥāḍah, a woman must perform one wuḍūʾ for every prayer and she must wash the outside of the vagina with water if there is blood there. And based on recommended precaution, she should purify the piece of cotton with water or change it for every prayer.

Ruling 393. For medium istiḥāḍah, a woman must, based on obligatory precaution, perform one ghusl daily for her prayers, and she must do the things that were mentioned in the previous ruling with regard to slight istiḥāḍah. Therefore, if she experiences istiḥāḍah before or at the time of morning (ṣubḥ) prayers, she must perform ghusl for ṣubḥ prayers. If she intentionally or forgetfully does not perform ghusl for ṣubḥ prayers, she must perform ghusl for midday (ẓuhr) and afternoon (ʿaṣr) prayers. And if she does not perform ghusl for ẓuhr and ʿaṣr prayers, she must perform ghusl before prayers after sunset (maghrib) and evening (ʿishāʾ) prayers, whether the bleeding has stopped or not.

Ruling 394. For excessive istiḥāḍah, a woman must, based on obligatory precaution, change or purify with water the piece of cotton and the sanitary pad [or other absorbent item]. It is also necessary for her to perform one ghusl for ṣubḥ prayers, one for ẓuhr and ʿaṣr prayers, and one for maghrib and ʿishāʾ prayers. Furthermore, she must not delay between ẓuhr and ʿaṣr prayers nor between maghrib and ʿishāʾ prayers; if she delays between them, she must perform ghusl again for ʿaṣr and ʿishāʾ prayers.

All of this applies when blood continuously soaks the piece of cotton and reaches the sanitary pad [or other absorbent item]. However, in the event that there is a delay in the blood soaking the piece of cotton and reaching the sanitary pad [or other absorbent item] to the extent that the woman can perform one or more prayers in that time, the obligatory precaution is that whenever the blood soaks the piece of cotton and reaches the sanitary pad [or other absorbent item], she must change or purify them with water and perform ghusl. Therefore, if a woman performs ghusl and, for example, she performs ẓuhr prayers but before ʿaṣr prayers or during ʿaṣr prayers blood soaks the piece of cotton and reaches the sanitary pad [or other absorbent item], then again, she must perform ghusl for ʿaṣr prayers. However, in the event that the delay is to the extent that in that time, the woman can perform two or more prayers – for example, she can perform maghrib and ʿishāʾ prayers before blood reaches the sanitary pad [or other absorbent item] again – then for those prayers [i.e. maghrib and ʿishāʾ], it is not necessary for her to perform another ghusl. In each case, for excessive istiḥāḍah, ghusl suffices in place of wuḍūʾ.

Ruling 395. If the blood of istiḥāḍah is discharged before the time for prayers, in the event that a woman has not performed wuḍūʾ or ghusl [depending on her duty] for it, she must perform wuḍūʾ or ghusl at the time of prayers, even if she is not mustaḥāḍah at that moment.

Ruling 396. A woman who has medium istiḥāḍah and must perform wuḍūʾ as well as ghusl, must, based on obligatory precaution, first perform ghusl and then perform wuḍūʾ. However, if a woman who has excessive istiḥāḍah wants to perform wuḍūʾ, she must perform it before she performs ghusl.

Ruling 397. If the slight istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes medium after ṣubḥ prayers, she must perform ghusl for ẓuhr and ʿaṣr prayers. And if it becomes medium after ẓuhr and ʿaṣr prayers, she must perform ghusl for maghrib and ʿishāʾ prayers.

Ruling 398. If the slight or medium istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes excessive after ṣubḥ prayers and she remains in this state, she must observe the laws mentioned in Ruling 394 regarding ẓuhr, ʿaṣr, maghrib, and ʿishāʾ prayers.

Ruling 399. For excessive istiḥāḍah, in case it is necessary for there not to be a delay between performing ghusl and prayers – as mentioned in Ruling 394 – then, if performing ghusl before the time for prayers has set in causes delay, that ghusl will be of no use for the purposes of performing the prayer and a mustaḥāḍah must perform ghusl again for the prayer. This ruling also applies to a woman who has medium istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 400. A woman who has slight or medium istiḥāḍah must perform wuḍūʾ for every prayer – including the daily prayers, for which the ruling has already been mentioned – be it an obligatory prayer or a recommended one. However, if she wants to perform again one of the daily prayers that she has already performed as a precautionary measure, or, if she wants to repeat in congregation (jamāʿah) the prayer she previously performed alone, she must do all the things that were mentioned with regard to istiḥāḍah. However, for performing ṣalāt al-āyāt or for a sajdah or tashahhud that has been forgotten, if she performs these immediately after prayers – and for sajdatā al-sahw in any condition [i.e. whether she performs them immediately after prayers or not] – it is not necessary for her to do those things that were mentioned with regard to istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 401. After a mustaḥāḍah has stopped bleeding, she must do the things required of a mustaḥāḍah for only the first prayer that she performs. For subsequent prayers, it is not necessary for her to do those things.

Ruling 402. If a woman does not know which type of istiḥāḍah she has, then based on obligatory precaution, when she wants to perform prayers she must examine herself. For example, she must insert some cotton into the vagina, wait a little while, and then take it out. After she has found out which of the three types of istiḥāḍah she has, she must do the things that have been instructed for that particular type. However, if she knows that until the time she wants to perform prayers her istiḥāḍah will not change, she can examine herself before the time for prayer has set in.

Ruling 403. If a mustaḥāḍah starts performing prayers without examining herself, in the event that she had the intention of attaining proximity to Allah and acted in accordance with her duty – for example, her istiḥāḍah was slight and she acted in accordance with the rules of someone who has slight istiḥāḍah – then in such a case, her prayers are valid. However, if she did not have the intention of attaining proximity to Allah or her actions were not in accordance with her duty – for example, her istiḥāḍah was medium but she acted in accordance with the rules of someone who has slight istiḥāḍah – then her prayers are void.

Ruling 404. If a mustaḥāḍah cannot examine herself, she must act according to what is undoubtedly her responsibility. For example, if she does not know whether her istiḥāḍah is slight or medium, she must do the things required of a woman with slight istiḥāḍah; and if she does not know whether she has medium or excessive istiḥāḍah, she must do the things required of a woman with medium istiḥāḍah.(1) However, if she knows which one of the three types it was previously, she must act in accordance with the duties for that type.

Ruling 405. If when the blood of istiḥāḍah is first discharged it remains inside and does not come out, this does not invalidate a woman’s wuḍūʾ or ghusl; but if it comes out – however little it may be – then this invalidates her wuḍūʾ and ghusl.

Ruling 406. If a mustaḥāḍah examines herself after prayers and does not see any blood, then even if she knows that bleeding will start again, she can perform prayers with the wuḍūʾ she already has.

Ruling 407. If a mustaḥāḍah knows that from the time she started performing wuḍūʾ or ghusl no blood has come out and nor is it in the vagina, she can delay performing prayers until the time she knows she will not experience istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 408. If a mustaḥāḍah knows that before the end of the time for prayers her istiḥāḍah will completely stop or that it will stop for long enough for her to perform prayers, then based on obligatory precaution she must wait and perform prayers when her istiḥāḍah has stopped.

Ruling 409. If after performing wuḍūʾ and ghusl the bleeding appears to have stopped and a mustaḥāḍah knows that if she delays the prayer her istiḥāḍah will stop for long enough for her to perform wuḍūʾ, ghusl, and prayers, then based on obligatory precaution she must delay the prayer; and when her istiḥāḍah completely stops, she must perform wuḍūʾ and ghusl again and perform the prayer. Furthermore, if when the bleeding appears to have stopped the time for prayers is short, it is not necessary for her to perform wuḍūʾ and ghusl again; rather, she can perform prayers with the wuḍūʾ and ghusl that she already has.

Ruling 410. When the bleeding of a woman with excessive istiḥāḍah completely stops, if she knows that from the time she became engaged in performing ghusl for the previous prayer there has not been any discharge of blood, it is not necessary for her to perform ghusl again. Apart from this case, she must perform ghusl, based on obligatory precaution. As for a woman who has medium istiḥāḍah, it is not necessary for her to perform ghusl if her istiḥāḍah has completely stopped.

Ruling 411. After a woman who has slight istiḥāḍah performs wuḍūʾ, and after a woman who has medium istiḥāḍah performs ghusl and wuḍūʾ, and after a woman who has excessive istiḥāḍah performs ghusl, she must immediately engage in performing her obligatory prayers [for which the time is due] except in the two cases that were mentioned in Rulings 394 and 407. However, there is no problem if she says adhān and iqāmah before prayers, and [when she is performing prayers] she can also perform recommended acts of the prayer, such as qunūt.

Ruling 412. If the duty of a mustaḥāḍah is that she must not delay in performing wuḍūʾ, ghusl, and prayers but she does not act according to her duty, she must perform wuḍūʾ or ghusl again and engage in performing the prayer without further delay.

Ruling 413. If the blood of a mustaḥāḍah is continuous and does not stop, in the event that it is not harmful for her, she must, based on obligatory precaution, prevent the blood from coming out before performing ghusl; in the event that she is negligent in doing this, and blood comes out, and she has performed prayers, she must perform them again. And the recommended precaution is that she should perform ghusl again [before performing these prayers].

Ruling 414. If bleeding does not stop at the time of performing ghusl, the ghusl is valid. However, if while performing ghusl, medium istiḥāḍah becomes excessive, it is necessary to start the ghusl all over again.

Ruling 415. The recommended precaution is that during the entire day that a mustaḥāḍah is fasting, she should prevent the blood from coming out as much as she can.

Ruling 416. Based on the well-known (mashhūr) juristic opinion, the fast of a woman who has excessive istiḥāḍah is valid if she performs ghusl for maghrib and ʿishāʾ prayers the night before the day she wants to fast and if she performs the ghusls that are obligatory for the prayers of the day. However, it is not farfetched to consider the validity of her fast as not being conditional on her performing ghusl, just as it is not conditional – based on a stronger opinion (aqwā)(2) – for a woman who has medium istiḥāḍah.(3)

Ruling 417. If a fasting woman becomes mustaḥāḍah after ʿaṣr prayers and she does not perform ghusl until sunset (ghurūb), her fast is valid without any problem.

Ruling 418. If before prayers the slight istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes medium or excessive, she must do the things required of a woman with medium or excessive istiḥāḍah, which were mentioned earlier. If the medium istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes excessive, she must do the things required of a woman with excessive istiḥāḍah; and in the event that she has performed ghusl for medium istiḥāḍah, it is of no use and she must perform ghusl again for excessive istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 419. If during prayers the medium istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes excessive, she must break her prayer, perform ghusl for excessive istiḥāḍah, do the other things required of a woman with excessive istiḥāḍah, and then perform that prayer; and based on recommended precaution, she should perform wuḍūʾ before ghusl. If she does not have time to perform ghusl, it is necessary for her to perform tayammum in place of ghusl; and if she does not have time to perform tayammum either, then based on recommended precaution she should not break her prayer but instead complete it in the state that she is in; however, it is necessary for her to make it up after its prescribed time. Similarly, if during prayers the slight istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes medium or excessive, she must break her prayer and do the things required of a woman with medium or excessive istiḥāḍah.

Ruling 420. If bleeding stops during prayers and a mustaḥāḍah does not know whether or not the bleeding has also stopped internally, or, if she does not know whether or not her istiḥāḍah will stop for long enough for her to obtain ritual purity (ṭahārah) [i.e. to perform wuḍūʾ or ghusl, according to her duty] and to perform all or part of the prayer, then based on obligatory precaution she must perform wuḍūʾ or ghusl – according to her duty – and perform the prayer again.

Ruling 421. If the excessive istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes medium, she must do the things required of a woman with excessive istiḥāḍah for the first prayer; and for subsequent prayers, she must do the things required of a woman with medium istiḥāḍah. For example, if before ẓuhr prayers her excessive istiḥāḍah becomes medium, she must perform ghusl for ẓuhr prayers; and for ʿaṣr, maghrib, and ʿishāʾ prayers, she must perform wuḍūʾ only. However, if she does not perform ghusl for ẓuhr prayers and she has time only to the extent of performing ʿaṣr prayers, she must perform ghusl for ʿaṣr prayers; and if she does not perform ghusl for ʿaṣr prayers either, she must perform ghusl for maghrib prayers; and if she does not perform ghusl for even those prayers and she has time only for ʿishāʾ prayers, she must perform ghusl for ʿishāʾ prayers.

Ruling 422. If before each prayer the bleeding of a woman with excessive istiḥāḍah stops and starts again, she must perform one ghusl for each prayer.

Ruling 423. If the excessive istiḥāḍah of a woman becomes slight, she must do the things required of a woman with excessive istiḥāḍah for the first prayer; and for subsequent prayers, she must do the things required of a woman with slight istiḥāḍah. Furthermore, if medium istiḥāḍah becomes slight, a mustaḥāḍah must do the things required of a woman with medium istiḥāḍah for the first prayer, if she has not done so already.

Ruling 424. If a mustaḥāḍah does not perform any of the acts that are obligatory on her, her prayers are invalid.

Ruling 425. If a woman with slight or medium istiḥāḍah wants to perform an act – other than prayers – that is conditional on having wuḍūʾ – for example, she wants to touch the writing of the Qur’an with a part of her body – then, in the event that this is after finishing prayers, she must, based on obligatory precaution, perform wuḍūʾ, and the wuḍūʾ that she had performed for prayers will not suffice.

Ruling 426. It is lawful for a mustaḥāḍah who has performed her obligatory ghusls to go to a mosque and stay in it, and to recite a verse with an obligatory sajdah,(4) and for her husband to have sexual intercourse with her, even if she has not done the other things that she would have done for prayers, such as changing the piece of cotton and the sanitary pad [or other absorbent item]. In fact, these acts are permitted even if she has not performed ghusl.

Ruling 427. If a woman with excessive or medium istiḥāḍah wants to recite a verse with an obligatory sajdah before the time for prayers, or, if she wants to go to a mosque, then based on recommended precaution she should perform ghusl. The same applies if her husband wants to have sexual intercourse with her.

Ruling 428. Ṣalāt al-āyāt is obligatory on a mustaḥāḍah. In order for a mustaḥāḍah to perform ṣalāt al-āyāt, she must do all the things that were mentioned with regard to performing the daily prayers.

Ruling 429. Whenever ṣalāt al-āyāt becomes obligatory on a mustaḥāḍah during the time of the daily prayers and she wants to perform both of them one after the other, then based on obligatory precaution she cannot perform both of them with one ghusl and wuḍūʾ [and she would need to perform an additional ghusl or wuḍūʾ].

Ruling 430. If a mustaḥāḍah wants to make up qaḍāʾ prayers, then for each prayer she must do everything that is obligatory on her for performing prayers within their prescribed time (adāʾ); and based on obligatory precaution, for qaḍāʾ prayers, she cannot suffice with the things that she has done for adāʾ prayers.

Ruling 431. If a woman knows that the blood being discharged is not blood from an injury but she is uncertain whether it is the blood of istiḥāḍah, ḥayḍ, or nifās, then in the event that the blood is not legally (sharʿan) ruled as being that of ḥayḍ or nifās, she must act according to the instructions pertaining to istiḥāḍah. In fact, if she doubts whether it is blood of istiḥāḍah or another type of blood, then in the event that it does not have the attributes of other types of blood, based on obligatory precaution, she must consider the blood to be istiḥāḍah.

(1) In these two examples, the mustaḥāḍah knows for sure that her istiḥāḍah is at least the lesser type. It could possibly be more than this, but as that is only a possibility, she must act according to what she knows is certain, i.e. the lesser type.

(2) For practical purposes, where an opinion is stated to be ‘stronger’, a fatwa is being given.

(3) This rule is clearly stated in Ruling 1613.

(4) These verses are mentioned in the fifth part of the list mentioned in Ruling 354.
Kinds of blood seen by women » Menstruation (ḥayḍ) → ← Kinds of blood seen by women » Irregular blood discharge (istiḥāḍah)
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