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CHAPTER THREE » Prayer (Ṣalāh) → ← Tayammum » Method of performing tayammum in place of wuḍūʾ or ghusl

Tayammum » Laws of tayammum

Ruling 691. If a person fails to wipe even a small area of his forehead or the back of his hands, his tayammum is invalid, irrespective of whether he fails to wipe the area intentionally, or because he did not know the ruling, or because he had forgotten to wipe it. However, it is not necessary to be very particular either, and it is sufficient if it can be said that the entire forehead and back of the hands have been wiped.

Ruling 692. If someone is not certain that he has wiped all of the back of his hand, then, in order to be certain, he must wipe an area a little higher than his wrist as well. However, it is not necessary to wipe in between the fingers.

Ruling 693. Based on obligatory precaution, the forehead and the back of the hands must be wiped from top to bottom [i.e. the forehead must be wiped in a direction towards the eyebrows and above the nose, and the back of the hands must be wiped in a direction towards the fingertips]. These actions must be performed one after the other, and if there is a delay between performing them such that it cannot be said that one is performing tayammum, the tayammum is invalid.

Ruling 694. When making the intention to perform tayammum, it is not necessary for one to specify whether the tayammum is in place of ghusl or wuḍūʾ. However, in cases where two tayammums must be performed, it is necessary to specify each one of them [in one’s intention]. And in the event that one tayammum is obligatory on a person and he makes the intention that he is performing his current duty, then even if he makes a mistake in determining his duty, his tayammum is valid.

Ruling 695. In tayammum it is not necessary for one’s forehead, the palms of his hands, and the back of his hands to be pure, although it is better if they are.

Ruling 696. One must remove any rings from his fingers when wiping over his hands; and if there is any obstruction on his forehead, the back of his hands, or on his palms – for example, something is stuck on them – he must remove it.

Ruling 697. If there is a wound on one’s forehead or on the back of his hands and the cloth or something else that is tied over it cannot be untied, he must wipe his hands over it. And if there is a wound on the palms of his hands and the cloth or something else that is tied over it cannot be untied, one must strike his hands on something with which tayammum can be validly performed with the same cloth tied over the wound and wipe over his forehead and the back of his hands. However, if part of the cloth is open, then striking and wiping with that open part is sufficient.

Ruling 698. There is no problem if there is a normal amount of hair on one’s forehead and on the back of his hands. However, if the hair of one’s head drops over onto his forehead, he must draw it back.

Ruling 699. If a person deems it probable that there is an obstruction on his forehead, on the palms of his hands, or on the back of his hands, then in the event that his deeming it probable would be considered by people to be reasonable, he must look into this until he becomes certain or confident that there is no obstruction.

Ruling 700. If someone’s duty is to perform tayammum but he cannot perform it on his own, he must get help from someone else. The helper must take the mukallaf’s hands and strike them on something with which tayammum can be validly performed; then, the helper must place the mukallaf’s hands on the mukallaf’s forehead and on the back of the mukallaf’s hands so that the mukallaf himself wipes the palms of his two hands over his forehead and over the back of his hands, if it is possible for him to do so; and if it is not possible, the helper must perform tayammum on the mukallaf with the mukallaf’s own hands [i.e. after the helper has placed the mukallaf’s hands on the mukallaf’s forehead and on the back of the mukallaf’s hands, the helper must draw the mukallaf’s hands over his forehead and over the back of his hands]; and if this is not possible, the helper must strike his own hands on something with which tayammum can be validly performed and wipe them over the mukallaf’s forehead and over the back of his hands. In these two cases, based on obligatory precaution, both of them must make the intention of tayammum. However, in the first case [where the mukallaf’s own hands are used], it is sufficient if only the mukallaf makes this intention.

Ruling 701. If while performing tayammum one doubts whether or not he has forgotten a certain part of it, in the event that he has passed that stage [i.e. he has performed that particular part of tayammum], he must not give heed to his doubt; and if he has not passed that stage, he must perform that stage.

Ruling 702. If after wiping the left hand one doubts whether or not he has correctly performed tayammum, his tayammum is valid. And in the event that one’s doubt is about the wiping of the left hand, it is necessary for him to wipe it unless it can commonly be said that he has completed performing tayammum; for example, he has started to perform an act that requires purification [such as prayers], or the close succession (muwālāh) [in performing tayammum] has not been maintained.

Ruling 703. If someone whose duty is to perform tayammum loses hope in his legitimate excuse [for performing tayammum in place of wuḍūʾ or ghusl] expiring during the entire length of time for prayers, or, if he deems it probable that if he delays performing tayammum he will not be able to perform tayammum in time, he can perform tayammum before the time for prayers has set in. And if one performs tayammum for another obligatory or recommended act and his legitimate excuse remains valid until the time of prayer has set in, he can perform the prayer with that tayammum.

Ruling 704. If someone whose duty is to perform tayammum knows that his legitimate excuse will remain valid until the end of the time for prayers, or, if he loses hope in his legitimate excuse expiring, he can perform prayers with tayammum at any point during the entire length of time for the prayer. However, if one knows that his legitimate excuse will expire by the end of the time for prayers, he must wait and perform the prayer with ghusl or wuḍūʾ. If a person does not lose hope in his legitimate excuse expiring by the end of the time for prayers, he cannot perform tayammum and perform the prayer until the time that he loses hope unless he deems it probable that if he does not perform the prayer with tayammum earlier, he will not be able to perform the prayer by the end of its time even with tayammum.

Ruling 705. If someone who cannot perform wuḍūʾ or ghusl loses hope in his legitimate excuse expiring, he can perform his qaḍāʾ prayers with tayammum. However, if afterwards his legitimate excuse expires, the obligatory precaution is that he must perform his qaḍāʾ prayers again with wuḍūʾ or ghusl. And if he does not lose hope in his legitimate excuse expiring, then based on obligatory precaution he cannot perform tayammum for qaḍāʾ prayers.

Ruling 706. It is permitted for someone who cannot perform wuḍūʾ or ghusl to perform recommended prayers that have a specific time – such as the daily supererogatory (nāfilah) prayer – with tayammum. However, if one does not lose hope in his legitimate excuse expiring before the end of the time for such prayers, the obligatory precaution is that he must not perform them at the start of their time. Recommended prayers that do not have a specific time can be performed with tayammum at any time.

Ruling 707. If someone performs jabīrah ghusl and tayammum as a precautionary measure, and after performing jabīrah ghusl and tayammum he performs a prayer, and after performing the prayer he has a minor occurrence(1) – for example, he urinates – then in such a case, for subsequent prayers he must perform wuḍūʾ. And in the event that the occurrence happens before prayers, he must perform wuḍūʾ for that prayer as well.

Ruling 708. If someone performs tayammum because he did not have water or because of some other legitimate excuse, then once that excuse expires, his tayammum becomes void.

Ruling 709. The things that invalidate wuḍūʾ also invalidate tayammum performed in place of wuḍūʾ. And the things that invalidate ghusl also invalidate tayammum performed in place of ghusl.

Ruling 710. If someone cannot perform ghusl and a few ghusls are obligatory on him, it is permitted for him to perform one tayammum in place of all of them; but the recommended precaution is that he should perform one tayammum in place of each ghusl.

Ruling 711. If someone who cannot perform ghusl wants to perform an act for which ghusl is obligatory, he must perform tayammum in place of ghusl. And if someone who cannot perform wuḍūʾ wants to perform an act for which wuḍūʾ is obligatory, he must perform tayammum in place of wuḍūʾ.

Ruling 712. If someone performs tayammum in place of the ghusl for janābah, it is not necessary for him to perform wuḍūʾ for prayers. Similarly, if the tayammum is in place of other ghusls [it is not necessary for him to perform wuḍūʾ for prayers], although in such a case, the recommended precaution is that he should perform wuḍūʾ as well; and if he cannot perform wuḍūʾ, he should perform another tayammum in place of wuḍūʾ.

Ruling 713. If someone performs tayammum in place of ghusl and afterwards something happens that invalidates wuḍūʾ, in the event that he cannot perform ghusl for subsequent prayers, he must perform wuḍūʾ. And the recommended precaution is that he should also perform tayammum; and if he cannot perform wuḍūʾ, he must perform tayammum instead.

Ruling 714. If someone’s duty is to perform tayammum and he performs it for some act, then as long as his tayammum and the legitimate excuse remain valid, he can perform those acts that must be performed with wuḍūʾ or ghusl. However, if his legitimate excuse was shortage of time, or, if despite having water he performed tayammum for ṣalāt al-mayyit or for sleeping, then with that tayammum he can perform only those acts for which he performed tayammum.

Ruling 715. In some cases, it is better for one to make up the prayers he performed with tayammum:

1.
he was fearful of using water and intentionally became junub and performed prayers with tayammum;
2. he knew or supposed that he would not find water and intentionally became junub and performed prayers with tayammum;
3. he intentionally did not go in search of water until the end of the time for prayers and performed prayers with tayammum and afterwards realised that if he had searched for water, he would have found it;
4. he intentionally delayed performing prayers and performed them with tayammum at the end of their time;
5. he knew or supposed that water would not be found and spilled the water he had and performed prayers with tayammum.


(1) See the footnote pertaining to Ruling 384 for an explanation of this term.
CHAPTER THREE » Prayer (Ṣalāh) → ← Tayammum » Method of performing tayammum in place of wuḍūʾ or ghusl
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